PROSPEK INSEKTISIDA NABATI BERBAHAN AKTIF METIL EUGENOL (C12H24O2) SEBAGAI PENGENDALI HAMA LALAT BUAH Bactrocera Spp. (Diptera : Tephritidae) Prospect of Methyl Eugenol (C12H24O2) as Active Ingredient of Botanical Insecticide for Fruit Flies Control Bact

Agus Kardinan

Abstract


ABSTRAK 

 Pengendalian organisme pengganggu tanamam (OPT) di bidang hortikultura, khususnya dengan pestisida cukup tinggi, yaitu dapat mencapai 30% dari biaya usahataninya.  Salah satu OPT di bidang hortikultura adalah hama lalat buah (Bactrocera spp.) yang mengakibatkan buah muda rontok, buah menjadi busuk dan berbelatung dengan kerusakan berkisar antara 30 - 60%, bahkan tidak jarang menggagalkan panen.  Petani sangat bergantung kepada pestisida kimia sintetis yang sering menimbulkan dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan dan kesehatan pengguna.  Salah satu alternatif pengendalian ramah lingkungan adalah dengan penggunaan insektisida nabati, yaitu dengan memanfaatkan tanaman yang mengandung bahan aktif metil eugenol (C12H24O2), seperti Melaleuca bracteata, Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum minimum dan Ocimum tenuiflorum. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi mengenai potensi insektisida nabati berbahan aktif metil eugenol yang dapat digunakan sebagai pengendali hama lalat buah Bactrocera spp. Minyak atsiri yang dihasilkan dari hasil penyulingan gabungan tanaman tersebut mengandung metil eugenol ± 80%. Dari minyak atsiri tersebut dibuat beberapa formula, diantaranya ; (1) atraktan lalat buah berbentuk cair/minyak; (2) lem perangkap/sticky trap dan (3) umpan beracun/poisonous bait. Pemanfaatan senyawa ini sebagai pengendali lalat buah melalui penggunaan umpan beracun dan lem perangkap dilengkapi umpan sari buah (essence) a,l, mangga, belimbing, jambu biji, jeruk, apel dan nenas serta gula kelapa mampu menurunkan intensitas serangan lalat buah pada mangga sebesar 38,6 - 58,9%. Penggunaan perangkap berwarna kuning dapat meningkatkan efektivitas pengendalian lalat buah.

 

 

ABSTRACT 

Pest control in horticulture commodities need high cost, especially for buying pesticide that can reach about 30% of total expenses. One of the pest problems in  horticulture is fruit fly (Bactrocera spp) which causes young fruit fall, the fruit becomes rotten and contain magot/larva with damage ranging from 30 - 60%,  even rarely causing fail in harvest. Farmers rely heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides that often have a negative impact on the environment and user health. An alternative eco-friendly control is the use of botanical insecticide by using plants containing active ingredient of methyl eugenol (C12H24O2), such as Melaleuca bracteata, Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum minimum and Ocimum tenuiflorum. The essential oils resulted from  distillation of the mixed plant above contain methyl eugenol ± 80%. Some products can be made from the essential oils containing methyl eugenol, i.e. (1) Attractant in the form of liquid/oil; (2) Glue/sticky trap and 3) Poisonous bait. The objective of the paper is to inform the pottency of botanical insecticide containing active ingredient of methyl eugenol for controlling fruit flies Bactrocera spp.


Keywords


insektisida nabati, metil eugenol, Bactrocera spp. / botanical insecticide, methyl eugenol, Bactrocera spp.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v18n1.2019.16-27

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