ALTERNATIF LEMAK KAKAO DALAM INDUSTRI KONFEKSIONERI / Cocoa Butter Alternatives In Confectionery Industry

Elsera Br Tarigan, Sunjaya Putra

Abstract


Cocoa butter (CB) mengandung asam palmitat (>25%), asam stearat (>33%) dan asam oleat (>34%), yang tersusun dalam bentuk trigliserida asimetris dengan asam oleat pada posisi sn-2. Permintaan CB terus meningkat tidak dibarengi dengan mutu dan ketersediaan yang konsisten dan harga masih tinggi. Pemanfaatan 100% CB dalam produk cokelat, juga menjadi kendala di negara-negara beriklim tropis karena mudah meleleh. Alternatif lemak kakao yang diinovasikan berdasarkan fungsinya adalah lemak pengganti (CBRs), substitusi (CBSs) dan ekuivalen (CBEs). Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah untuk mengkaji alternatif lemak kakao yang dimanfaatkan dalam industri konfeksioneri. CBRs memiliki kandungan asam lemak yang menyerupai CB sedangkan asam lemak CBSs berbeda namun sifat fisik menyerupai CB. Namun, pada aplikasinya di industri CBEs paling diminati karena memiliki sifat fisik dan kimia menyerupai CB. Sawit merupakan salah satu sumber CBEs dengan memanfaatkan fraksi tengah minyak sawit (PMF). Produksi CBEs dengan interesterifikasi fraksi tengah minyak sawit dan asam stearat secara enzimatis memiliki keuntungan seperti tidak toksik dan biaya yang murah. Modifikasi lemak atau minyak nabati dilakukan dalam rangka menghasilkan lemak dengan susunan trigliserida POP, POS, dan SOS menyerupai CB. Metode yang digunakan untuk memodifikasi asam lemak minyak nabati adalah dengan interesterifikasi secara kimia ataupun enzimatis dalam memperbaiki susunan trigliserida asimentris, baik pada posisi sn-2 ataupun sn-1,3.

ABSTRACT

Cocoa butter (CB) contains palmitic acid (> 25%), stearic acid (> 33%) and oleic acid (> 34%), which the structure arrangement are in asymmetric triglycerides form with oleic acid at the position sn-2. Increasing of CB demand are not in lined with quality and availability also highly prices as well. Tropical climate also thoughtful problem for chocolate using 100 % CB where the product melts easily.  Cocoa butter alternatives (CBA) divided into three subgroup based on the function, they are cocoa butter substitutes (CBRs), cocoa butter substitute (CBSs) and cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs). The objective of this paper was to examine alternatives cocoa butter based on the properties. Fatty acids of CBRs are similar to CB, while CBS fatty acids are different however the physical properties are similar to CB. Industries utilization, CBEs is the most appealing among others CBA since they have physical and chemical properties close to CB. Palm oil is one of the sources of CBEs by utilizing the middle fraction of palm oil (PMF).CBEs from palm oil middle fraction and stearic acid has advantages such as non-toxicity and low cost. Modification of vegetable fats or oils is carried out in order to produce fatty acid with the triglycerides composition of POP, POS, and SOS similar to CB. Modifying fatty acids of oils or fats plant could by chemical or enzymatic interesterification in improving the asymmetric triglyceride arrangement, either the position at the sn-2 or sn-1,3.


Keywords


alternatif lemak kakao, ekuivalen lemak kakao, lemak kakao, pengganti lemak kakao, substitusi lemak kakao

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v21n2.2022.87-96

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