Cabe Jawa (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) : PENGGUNAAN TRADISIONAL, FITOKIMIA dan AKTIVITAS FARMAKOLOGI Piper retrofractum Vahl. : Traditional Uses, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Activities

Fahrauk Faramayuda, Sufyan Zainul Arifin, Akhirul Kahfi Syam, Elfahmi Elfahmi

Abstract


 

ABSTRAK

 

Cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) adalah tanaman daerah tropis asli Indonesia yang dijumpai juga di negara Asia Tenggara seperti Thailand dan Malaysia, dan sejak dahulu telah digunakan secara turun-temurun sebagai bahan tambahan makanan ataupun obat tradisional. Secara tradisional di masyarakat, buah cabe jawa dapat digunakan dalam ramuan untuk mengobati demam, perut kembung, mulas, muntah, mengatasi gangguan pencernaan, merangsang nafsu makan, dan lemah syahwat. Akarnya sering digunakan untuk mengobati sakit gigi, luka dan kejang, serta bagian daunnya digunakan juga untuk obat kumur. Beberapa penelitian menyebutkan aktivitas farmakologi cabe Jawa memiliki efek afrodisiaka, antipiretik, antihiperurisemia, antikanker, dan antimikroba. Pengujian klinis terhadap cabe jawa telah dilakukan dan potensial dikembangkan menjadi obat tradisional golongan fitofarmaka. Cabe jawa memiliki aktivitas sebagai imunostimulan, lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kelompok imunostimulan fitofarmaka. Cabe jawa mempunyai potensi sebagai anti-photoaging, aktivitas antituberkular, antiproliferasi, aktivitas larvasida, dan aktivitas sitotoksik. Studi fitokimia senyawa metabolit sekunder utama yang terkandung dalam cabe jawa antara lain beberapa jenis alkaloid seperti piperine, pipernonaline, guineensine, piperoctadecalidine, minyak atsiri buah cabe jawa mengandung tiga komponen utama yaitu yaitu β-caryophyllene (17%), pentadecane (17,8%) dan β- bisabollene (11,2%) . Selain senyawa utama tersebut,  terdapat senyawa baru pada buah cabe jawa, diantaranya; senyawa amida, amida glikosida, fenilpropanoid glikosida, dan alkaloid. Sebagai afrodisiaka bagian yang digunakan adalah buahnya dan senyawa piperin yang diduga bertanggung jawab terhadap aktivitas tersebut. Piperin merupakan senyawa utama dan zat berkhasiat yang terkandung dalam buah cabe jawa dan berfungsi sebagai penurun demam, mengurangi rasa sakit, antioksidan, mengurangi peradangan, antitumor, dan sebagai imunomodulator. Berdasarkan aktifitas farmakologi yang baik dari cabe jawa maka studi atau penelitian-penelitian pada tanaman ini harus terus dilakukan seperti pengembangan formulasi dan upaya perbanyakan tanaman karena populasi cabe jawa jumlahnya terbatas. Media terbaik dalam induksi kalus tanaman cabe jawa adalah Murrashige Skoog (MS) yang ditambah 6-Benzil Amino Purin (BAP) dan Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA).

ABSTRACT

 

Piper retrofractum vahl. is a tropical plant native to Indonesia which is also found in Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand and Malaysia, and has been used for generations as a food additive or traditional medicine. Traditionally in the community, P. retrofractum  fruit can be used in potions to treat fever, flatulence, heartburn, vomiting, overcome digestive disorders, stimulate appetite, and impotence. The roots are often used to treat toothaches, wounds, and seizures, and the leaves are also used for mouthwash. Several studies have stated that the pharmacological activity of P. retrofractum  has aphrodisiac, antipyretic, anticancer, and antimicrobial effects. Clinical testing on P. retrofractum  has been carried out and has the potential to be developed into a traditional medicine of the phytopharmaceutical class. P. retrofractum  has activity as an immunostimulant, which is higher than the phytopharmaceutical immunostimulant group. P. retrofractum has potential as anti-photoaging, antitubercular, antiproliferative, larvicidal activity, and cytotoxic activity. Phytochemical studies of the main secondary metabolites contained in P. rectofractum include several types of alkaloids such as piperine, pipernonaline, guineensine, piperoctadecalidine, fruit essential oils. Javanese chili contains three main components, namely-caryophyllene (17%), pentadecane (17.8%) and -bisabollene (11.2%). In addition to these main compounds, there are new compounds in P. retrofractum  fruit, including; amide compounds, amide glucosides, phenylpropanoid glucosides, and alkaloids. As an aphrodisiac, the part used is the fruit and the piperine compound which is thought to be responsible for this activity. Piperine is the main compound and efficacious substance contained in P. retrofractum  fruit and functions as a fever reducer, pain reliever, antioxidant, reducing inflammation, antitumor, and immunomodulator. Based on the good pharmacological activity of P. retrofractum , studies or researches on this plant must continue to be carried out such as formulation development and plant propagation efforts because the population of P. retrofractum  is limited. The best medium for callus induction of cabe jawa was Murashige Skoog (MS) with 6-Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) and Naphtalene acetic (NAA) added.

 


Keywords


Cabe jawa, tanaman asli Indonesia, tradisional, aktivitas farmakologi, dan kultur jaringan tanaman / P. retrofractum, Indonesian native plants, traditional, pharmacological activities, and plant tissue culture.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/psp.v20n1.2021.26-34

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