Pengaruh Bio-Nano Silika Terhadap Hasil dan Efisiensi Penggunaan Air Kedelai Hitam di Lahan Kering Masam

Laksmita Prima Santi, Didik Hadjar Goenadi, Junita Barus, Ai Dariah

Abstract


Abstrak. Kebutuhan kedelai hitam nasional masih tergantung pada pasokan dari luar negeri dan terkendala oleh rendahnya produktivitas. Oleh karena itu, pemanfaatan lahan marginal secara optimal perlu didorong untuk budidaya kedelai hitam. Optimalisasi lahan kering masam dihadapkan pada faktor utama pembatas tanah antara lain kemasaman tanah tinggi, air tersedia terbatas, dan efisiensi penggunaan unsur hara rendah. Silika (Si) dalam bentuk yang siap diserap oleh tanaman (asam silikat) mampu meningkatkan toleransi tanaman terhadap cekaman kekeringan dan meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan hara. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh aplikasi bio-nano silika di lahan kering yang bereaksi masam terhadap: (i) hasil kedelai hitam, dan (ii) efisiensi penggunaan air. Kegiatan lapang dilaksanakan di Jatitujuh, Majalengka, Jawa Barat, pada bulan Juli-Oktober 2017 dengan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok (RAK). Pupuk bio-nano silika diberikan dengan dosis 0, 2, 4, dan 6 L ha-1, sedang pupuk N, P, dan K tunggal diberikan setara dengan 0, 50, 75, dan 100% dosis rekomendasi. Plot kontrol berupa perlakuan standar petani (100% N, P, dan K + 2 ton ha-1 pupuk organik). Plot berukuran 100 m2 dari setiap perlakuan ditanami kedelai hitam varietas Detam-1. Pupuk bio-nano silika diekstraksi dari pasir kuarsa 325 mesh menggunakan larutan asam dan basa. Pupuk bio-nano silika mengandung kadar H4SiO4 > 5% dengan ukuran partikel 18 nm dan dalam aplikasinya diperkaya dengan mikroorganisme pelarut Si, yaitu Aeromonas punctata, Burkholderia cenocepacia, B. vietnamiensis, dan Aspergillus niger. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa hasil biji kedelai nyata tertinggi diperoleh pada perlakuan 75% NPK + 2 L bio-nano silika ha-1. Aplikasi 4 L ha-1 bio-nano silika dapat menghemat dosis pupuk N, P, dan K sampai dengan 32%. Sementara aplikasi dengan dosis 6 L ha-1 bio-nano silika dapat meningkatkan hasil kedelai hitam var. Detam-1 sampai dengan 36,7% dan menekan kebutuhan air tanaman hingga 65%.


Abstract. National black soybean demand is still dependent on import supply and limited by its low productivity. Therefore, the utilization of marginal land needs to be driven for development of black soybean cultivation. The main limiting factors of acid dry land soils are high soil acidity, limited water availability and low nutrients use efficiency. Silica (Si) in plant-available form (silicic acid) is able to improve plant drought tolerance and nutrient use efficiency. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the application of bio-nano-silica in acid dry land to: (i) black soybean productivity, and (ii) the efficiency of water use. The research was conducted in Jatitujuh area, Majalengka, West Java, in July-October 2017, by using a randomized block design. Bio-nano silica was applied at 0, 2, 4, and 6 L ha-1, whereas single N, P, and K fertilizers were given at 0, 50, 75, and 100% of recommended rate in three replicates and on a 100 m2 plot size each, with control plot and farmer’s standard practice plot (100% N, P, and K + 2-ton ha-1 of organic matter). Bio-nano silica was prepared from a 325-mesh quartz sand using acid base solution extraction method and containing > 5% H4SiO4 with 18 nm particle size applied in combination with selected Si-solubilizing microorganism, i.e. Aeromonas punctata, Burkholderia cenocepacia, B. vietnamiensis, and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the highest yield of soybean seed obtained in treatment 75% NPK + 2 L bio-nano silica ha-1. Application of 4 L ha-1 bio-nano silica saved of 32% N, P, and K fertilizer dosage. Furthermore, 6 L ha-1 bio-nano silica improved bean production of Detam-1 var up to 36.7% and reduced water consumption by 65%.


Keywords


lahan kering masam, bio-nano silika, ketahanan kekeringan, mikroorganisme pelarut silika

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jti.v42n1.2018.43-52

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