Pengelolaan Lansekap Lahan Bekas Tambang: Pemulihan Lahan Dengan Pemanfaatan Sumberdaya Lokal (In-Situ)

Deddy Erfandi

Abstract


Abstrak. Salah satu pemanfaatan lahan yang memiliki dampak negative terhadap kualitas lahan adalah kegiatan penambangan. Dengan ekploitasi lahan yang intensif menyebabkan permukaan lahan (lansekap) menjadi tidak beraturan. Limbah sisa hasil tambang yang berada dipermukaan lahan seperti batuan sisa bahan tambang (overburden), sisa bahan tambang yang berbentuk pasir (tailing) dan air asam tambang serta limbah batuan yang mengandung logam berat sering menimbulkan kualitas lahan menjadi stress. Bahan sisa limbah hasil tambang memiliki kandungan bahan organik dan kelembaban tanah yang sangat rendah, tanah mudah padat. Lapisan tanah atas pada lahan bekas tambang sangat heterogen dan memiliki berat isi tinggi, bersifat toksik dan hara makro menjadi tidak tersedia bagi tanaman sehingga tanaman tidak tumbuh dan berproduksi serta memiliki populasi mikroba tanah rendah. Pengelolaan lansekap pada lahan bekas tambang tidak terlepas dari tindakan konservasi tanah, karena selain memperbaiki tanah untuk media tumbuh tanaman, juga mengurangi dampak negative terhadap erosi dan aliran permukaan. Salah satu pendekatan dalam pengelolaan lansekap adalah meningkatkan kualitas tanah yang ramah lingkungan dan berkelanjutan. Pencegahan degradasi lahan dan membangun sumber bahan organik in-situ, melalui rotasi tanaman, sistim pengolahan tanah, penggunaan mulsa tanaman, tanaman penutup tanah dan pertanaman berlereng. Pemanfaatan sumberdaya lokal menjadi penting dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas lahan bekas tambang. Namun hal terpenting bahwa pembenah tanah harus potential memperbaiki sifat fisik, kimia dan mikrobiologi tanah, serta bahan pembenah tanah atau ameliorant merupakan sumberdaya lokal.  

Abstract. One use of land that has a negative impact on the quality of land is mining. With the intensive exploitation of land which causes the surface of the land (landscape) becomes irregular. Residual waste that is surface mined land as mine waste rock material (overburden), residual minerals in the form of sand (tailings) and acid mine drainage and waste rock containing heavy metals often cause the quality of land to become stressed. Waste material mined residual organic matter and soil moisture is very low, easy to soil solid. A layer of topsoil on mined lands is very heterogeneous and have a high bulk density, toxic and macro nutrients unavailable to plants so that the plants do not grow and produce, and have low soil microbial populations. Landscape management on mined land can not be separated from soil conservation measures, because in addition to improve the soil for plant growth media, also reduces the negative impact on erosion and runoff. One approach in the management of the landscape is improving soil quality that are environmentally friendly and sustainable. Prevention of land degradation and build a sources of organic material in-situ, through crop rotation, tillage systems, crop mulching, cover crops and crop cycle. Utilization of local resources to be important in order to improve the quality of mined lands. But the most important thing, that soil ameliorant should be potential improve to soil physical, chemical and biological , as well as ameliorant material are a local resource.


Keywords


bahan organik; pemulihan; lansekap; lahan bekas tambang; organic matter; rehabilitation; landscape; mined land;

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jsdl.v11n2.2017.55-66

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