Peluang dan Tantangan Implementasi Model Pertanian Konservasi di Lahan Kering

Achmad Rachman

Abstract


Abstrak. Pertanian konservasi adalah salah satu alternatif model pada praktek pertanian di lahan kering yang dalam jangka panjang dapat meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman, efisiensi usahatani, dan kualitas lingkungan melalui perbaikan kualitas tanah. Tulisan ini membahas prospek penerapan pertanian konservasi untuk meningkatkan kualitas tanah dan produktivitas lahan kering. Model pertanian konservasi lebih menekankan pada perbaikan kandungan bahan organik tanah melalui kombinasi 3 pendekatan yaitu olah tanah minimum, pemulsaan, dan pengaturan pola tanam. Introduksi model pertanian konservasi di negara-negara berkembang seperti Indonesia, yang umumnya lahan pertaniannya berskala sempit (<1 ha) dihadapkan pada masalah perkembangan gulma dan penurunan produktivitas pada fase awal implementasi, dan lahan yang tidak bersih sehingga berpotensi memicu munculnya hama dan penyakit tertentu. Namun demikian, model pertanian konservasi ini berpotensi untuk mengubah lahan kering terdegradasi atau tidak produktif menjadi lahan pertanian produktif dengan efisiensi usahatani yang tinggi. Dengan manfaat jangka panjang tersebut, maka implementasi pertanian konservasi di lahan kering, yang potensinya mencapai 29,4 juta ha, akan meningkatkan secara signifikan kontribusi lahan kering terhadap upaya mempertahankan swasembada pangan nasional dan meningkatkan kesejahteraan petani lahan kering. Diperlukan proses dan modifikasi untuk mengadaptasikan teknologi ini yang disesuaikan dengan karakteristik agroekosistem, konidisi sosial, dan ekonomi lokal setempat, sehingga berbagai kendala adopsi dapat diminimalisir dan manfaat dapat dioptimalkan baik jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang. Selain itu, diperlukan dukungan pemerintah dalam bentuk pelatihan, advokasi, dan bantuan input usahatani untuk meminimalisir resiko kerugian petani terutama pada tahap awal implementasi teknologi.

Abstract. Conservation agriculture is an alternative model to agricultural practices in dryland which in the long term provides a number of benefits including an increase in crop productivity, farm input efficiency and environmental quality through the improvement of soil quality. This paper discusses the prospect for implementing conservation agricultural to improve soil quality and productivity of dryland. The conservation agriculture model emphasizes the improvement of soil organic matter content through a combination of 3 approaches, namely minimum tillage, mulching, and cropping pattern. Introduction of conservation agriculture into developing countries like Indonesia, which are generally small-scale farming (<1 ha), will face a number of obstacles caused by short-term and immediate shortcomings of the technology. These shortcomings include weed development and productivity decline in the early phase of implementation, and the potential to trigger the emergence of certain pests and diseases due to unclean land. However, the practice has the potential to transform degraded or unproductive drylands into more efficient and productive agricultural land. With those long-term benefits of conservation agriculture, its implementation to 29.4 million ha of dryland of Indonesia will boost significantly the contribution of dryland agriculture in sustaining national food self sufficiency and improving the welfare of dryland farmers. Processes and modifications are needed to adapt this practice to suit local agroecosystem, social and local economic characteristics so that various adoption constraints can be minimized and short-term and long-term benefits can be optimized. In addition, government supports are needed in the form of training, advocacy and farm inputs subsidies to minimize the risk of loss of farmers especially in the early stages of technology implementation.


Keywords


Soil quality; soil quality index; key indicators; post-mining land; reclamation; kualitas tanah; indeks kualitas tanah; indikator kunci; lahan bekas tambang; reklamasi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jsdl.v11n2.2017.77-90

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