Lahan Sawah Sebagai Pendukung Ketahanan Pangan serta Strategi Pencapaian Kemandirian Pangan

Wahyunto Wahyunto, Fitri Widiastuti

Abstract


Abstrak. Lahan sawah di Indonesia terdiri atas: sawah irigasi, sawah tadah hujan, sawah pasang surut, dan sawah lebak, dengan total luas 8,1 juta ha, namun produksi padi nasional sebagian besar berasal dari lahan sawah irigasi (67,5%), dan sawah tadah hujan (27,5%). Kedua sawah tersebut 43% di antaranya terdapat di Pulau Jawa. Ketergantungan produksi padi dari lahan sawah irigasi di Pulau Jawa cukup beresiko tinggi, mengingat lahan sawah di Pulau Jawa semakin sempit akibat konversi lahan ke non pertanian. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pangan, usaha ketahanan dan kemandirian pangan, pemanfaatan teknologi baru dalam peningkatan produksi dan produktivitas padi sawah harus disertai dengan perbaikan teknis budidaya dengan tetap memperhatikan kelestarian lingkungan. Upaya mendukung kemandirian pangan harus dibarengi dengan usaha pengurangan laju konversi lahan sawah, peningkatan kapasitas produksi, luas tanam dan Indek Pertanaman (IP) padi, perbaikan sistem/jaringan irigasi, serta penambahan luas lahan baku sawah.

Abstract. Wetland rice in Indonesia consists of: irrigated rice, rainfed, lowland tidal and swampy/deep water rice fields, with a total area of 8.1 million ha. However, most of the national rice production comes from irrigated land (67.5%), and rainfed (27.5%), Both type of rice fields are 43% of which are located in Java islands. Rice production mostly concentrated at irrigated land is quite high risk, when paddy field area in Java island accelerated and coverted to non agriculture uses, and levelling off it productivity. To meet the needs of food resilience and food self-sufficiency, application of new technologies in increasing production and rice productivity, cultivation techniques should be improved with regard to environmental sustainability. To achieve foodcrop farming on sustainable basis, the farming system could be integrated with livestock, fisheries and forestry sectors. Efforts to support food self-sufficiency should be in line with efforts to reduce the rate of wetland conversion, increasing of rice productivity and rice planting intensity, rehabilitation of irrigation systems and networks as well as rice field expansion.


Keywords


Lahan Sawah; Produktivitas; Ketahanan Pangan; Swasembada Pangan; Wetland Rice; Productivity; Food Resilience; Food Self Sufficiency;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jsdl.v8n3.2014.%25p

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