Karakteristik dan Potensi Pemanfaatan Lahan Gambut Terdegradasi di Provinsi Riau

Masganti Masganti, Wahyunto Wahyunto, Ai Dariah, Nurhayati Nurhayati, Rachmiwati Yusuf

Abstract


Abstrak. Luas lahan gambut di Indonesia diperkirakan sekitar 14,95 juta hektar dimana sekitar 6,66 juta hektar atau 44,6% telah
terdegradasi. Degradasi lahan gambut terjadi antaranya disebabkan oleh kebakaran lahan, kesalahan dalam pengelolaan air, dan
kegiatan penambangan. Lahan gambut terdegradasi merupakan lahan gambut yang mengalami penurunan fungsi hidrologi,
produksi, dan ekologi akibat memburuknya sifat kimia, fisika dan biologi gambut, sehingga produktivitasnya menurun, bahkan
sebagian menjadi tidak produktif dan dibiarkan menjadi semak belukar dan lahan terbuka bekas tambang sebagai lahan terlantar.
Riau merupakan provinsi di pulau Sumatera yang mempunyai lahan gambut terluas, yakni 3,89 juta hektar dari 6,49 juta hektar
total luas lahan gambut di pulau Sumatera. Akan tetapi sekitar 2,31 juta hektar telah terdegradasi. Meskipun terdegradasi,
sebagian lahan gambut atau hampir separuhnya dimanfaatkan masyarakat sebagian besar untuk budidaya tanaman perkebunan
meliputi kelapa sawit, karet, disusul tanaman pangan meliputi padi, jagung, kedele, ubijalar dan ubikayu, selanjutnya tanaman
hortikultura buah berupa nanas, pisang, rambutan, buah naga, cempedak, nangka, jeruk, melon, kedondong, dan belimbing,
sayuran buah meliputi cabe, timun, kecipir, labu, dan tomat, dan sayuran daun terdiri dari kangkung, bayam, sawi, dan selada.
Dari 934.130 ha lahan gambut terdegradasi yang belum dimanfaatkan, sekitar 585.217 ha potensial dikembangkan untuk
tanaman perkebunan, pangan dan hortikultura.

Abstract. Peatland area in Indonesia is estimated to be around 14.95 million hectares of which about 6.66 million hectares, or
44.6% had been degraded. Peatland degradation occurs which is caused by fires, water miss-management, and mining activities.
A degraded peatlands which is peatland that have decreasing on hydrology , production, and ecology function due to the
deteriorating nature of chemistry, physics and biology peat, so that productivity decreases, even partially be unproductive and
mostly covered by shurbs, bush and bare land as the former mining wasteland. Riau is a province on the island of Sumatra, which
has the widest peat, which is 3.89 million hectares from 6.49 million hectares of the total peatland area in Sumatra island.
However, approximately 2.31 million hectares have been degraded. Although degraded, partially or almost half of them peatland
communities largely utilized for the cultivation of plantation crops including oil palm, rubber, followed by food crops include rice,
corn, soybean, sweet potato and cassava, further horticultural fruit crops such as pineapple, banana, rambutan, dragon fruit ,
Cempedak, jackfruit, oranges, melons, kedondong, and star fruit, fruit vegetables including peppers, cucumbers, winged bean,
squash, and tomatoes, and leafy vegetables consisted of kale, spinach, collards, and lettuce. Of the 934,130 ha of degraded
peatlands indicated potential for developing plantation crops, food and horticulture for about 585,217 ha.


Keywords


Karakteristik; Potensi; Pemanfaatan; Lahan Gambut Terdegradasi; Characteristics; Potential; Utilization; Degraded Peatlands; Riau;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jsdl.v8n1.2014.%25p

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