Pemantauan dan Peringatan Dini Kekeringan Pertanian di Indonesia

Elza Surmaini

Abstract


Abstrak. Kekeringan pertanian merupakan bencana alam yang sangat kompleks dan mempengaruhi daerah yang luas. Di Indonesia kejadian kekeringan terjadi hampir setiap tahun dan meningkat tajam pada kondisi El Niño yang menyebabkan penuruan produksi pertanian yang signifikan. Namun, sampai saat ini sistim pemantauan, peringatan dini dan diseminasi kekeringan yang komprehensif dan terintegrasi belum tersedia. Pemantauan kekeringan telah dilakukan dan dilaporkan oleh lembaga terkait seperti LAPAN dan BMKG, sedangkan pemantauan kekeringan pertanian dilakukan oleh Kementerian Pertanian. Dalam membangun sistim peringatan dini kekeringan pertanian, pemantauan saja belum memadai karena diperlukan komponen prediksi dan antisipasi dampaknya. Sampai saat ini prediksi kekeringan pertanian yang operasional untuk wilayah Indonesia belum tersedia. Balitbangtan sedang mengembangkan sistim prediksi bencana kekeringan dan banjir pada tanaman padi, namun belum operasional. Sistim peringatan dini kekeringan pertanian sangat diperlukan untuk menurunkan kehilangan produksi pangan. Tulisan ini memaparkan tentang berbagai definisi, indeks dan karakteristik kekeringan, pemantauan kekeringan, perkembangan terbaru mengenai deteksi dini kekeringan pertanian, dan pendekatan yang diperlukan dalam membangun sistim peringatan dini kekeringan pertanian di Indonesia. Informasi dan isu yang disampaikan pada tulisan ini dapat mendorong pengambil kebijakan untuk mengembangkan dan sistim pemantauan dan peringatan dini untuk mengatasi dampak kekeringan lebih efektif.

Abstract. Agricultural drought is the most complex natural hazard and affects large areas then causes significant drops in food production. In Indonesia, paddy field drought occurs almost every year and extends during El Niño phenomena with severe consequences for agricultural production in Indonesia. However, up to now, a comprehensive, integrated drought monitoring, early warning and delivery system did not exist. Drought monitoring has already conducted dan reported by the relevant agencies namely BMKG and LAPAN, while agricultural drought monitoring is conducted by Ministry of Agriculture . For developing agricultural drought early warning systems, beside of monitoring components of prediction impact model on agriculture are also impartant. Currently, operational prediction of agricultural drought in Indonesia is not yet available. Balitbangtan is developing agricultural drought prediction for rice, but is not yet operational. If an effective early warning system for monitoring and predicting agricultural drought can be conducted and developed, decline in food crop production can be minimized. Information from issue presented in this article will help policy maker and planner to develop or improve drought monitoring and early warning system to tackle drought impact more effectively.


Keywords


Agriculture; Drought; Monitoring; Prediction; Early Warning; Pertanian; Kekeringan; Pemantauan; Prediksi; Peringatan Dini

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jsdl.v10n1.2016.%25p

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