Strategies for Indonesia’s Agricultural Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

Fahmuddin Agus, Elza Surmaini, Helena Lina


Agriculture is known as one of the sectors that both contributes to and is the victim of climate change. Under the adverse impacts of climate change, producing more food is an advance challenge. Rainfall and temperature controls  crop growing seasons. The frequency and intensity of the occurrence of floods and droughts are increasing, which causes crop yield decline. On the other hand,  climate change is also affected by agriculture sector’s emissions. Agriculture in Indonesia emitted about 104 Mt (million tonnes) CO2e in 2020 with the main sources of emission were from lowland rice, livestock enteric fermentation, direct N2O from soil and manure and indirect N2O from soil. Emission reduction strategies in Indonesia’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) include the use of low-emission lowland rice crops varieties, implementation of efficient water management in lowland rice cultivation, manure management for biogas, and feed quality improvement for livestock. Moreover, for reaching the national emission reduction target some additional actions are needed, including: intensified use of organic fertilizers, organic village, balance fertilization which is mostly associated with improving N use efficiency, and raising water  in peatland farming. At the national level, climate change policy is more focused on mitigation ambition above that of NDC. Therefore, the country needs to look for ways that combine climate change mitigation and ensuring food security. All policies of mitigation must be in synchrony with adaptation since adaptation is the key for successful maintenance of food security.


Adaptation, Agriculture, Climate Change, Food security, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Nationally Determined Contribution, Mitigation

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