Ameliorasi Berbasis Unsur Hara Silika di Lahan Rawa

Adha Siregar, Wahida Annisa


Abstrak. Unsur hara Silika (Si) memiliki peranan penting pada pertumbuhan dan produktivitas tanaman padi. Tanaman padi menyerap Si dalam jumlah yang besar yaitu sekitar 10 kali N, 20 kali P, 6 kali K dan 30 kali Ca. Budidaya padi di lahan rawa memiliki beberapa faktor pembatas yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan produktivitas padi diantaranya keracunan unsur toksik seperti Fe dan Al. Kadar unsur toksik terutama Fe di lahan rawa menyebabkan tanah menjadi masam, sehingga banyak tanaman yang tidak dapat beradaptasi dengan kondisi tersebut. Kondisi ini dapat diatasi diantaranya dengan aplikasi Si, yang berperan menurunkan serapan Fe dan Al yang berada dalam kondisi toksik. Beberapa hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Si berpengaruh dalam menurunkan tingkat toksisitas Al dan Fe di tanah. Aplikasi Si sebagai amelioran mengurangi kandungan Fe pada permukaan akar padi serta menurunkan serapan Fe pada tanaman padi sawah melalui peningkatan kekuatan oksidasi akar. Lebih lanjut, aplikasi Si pada budidaya tanaman padi dapat meningkatkan hasil gabah sebesar 50,8%.


Abtract. Silicon (Si) has an important role on rice crops growth and productivity. Rice crops absorbs enormous amount of Si as much as ten times of N, twenty times of P, six times of K and thirty times of Ca. Rice cultivation in swampland has several limiting factors such as Fe and Al toxicity. Fe toxicity could increase soil acidity in swampland. However, most plants could not adapt to this condition. Si application as soil ameliorant could be an option to overcome this problem. Si could reduce the toxicity level of Fe and Mn in soil. Previous research proved that Si could decrease Fe and Al toxicity. Si application as ameliorant could reduce Fe concentration in root zone which lead to decreasing Fe uptake through increasing oxidation capability of the root. Moreover, Si application could increase rice yield up to 50.8%..


Ameliorasi, lahan rawa, padi, silikon, unsur toksik

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