PENDUGAAN PARAMETER GENETIK DAN KORELASI ANTAR SIFAT-SIFAT MORFOLOGI KELAPA (Cocos nucifera, Linn)

HELDERING TAMPAKE, H. T. LUNTUNGAN

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui parameter genetik dan korelasi antar sifat-sifat morfologi kelapa. Bahan lanaman yang digunakan adalah 19 populasi kelapa lokal hasil koleksi dan beberapa pulau di Indonesia, ditanam di Kebun Percobaan Pakuwon, Jawa Barat pada tahun 1978 dan 1982. Tinggi tempat 450 m di atas permukaan laut dengan tipe iklim Bl menurut Oldeman. Jumlah tanaman 100 pohon, dengan jarak tanam 9 m x 9 m scgi empat untuk kelapa Dalam dan 60 pohon kelapa Genjah dengan jarak tanam 7 m x 7 m scgi empat sciiap populasi. Pengamatan dilaksanakan dalam dua lahap Mei-Agusius 1996 pada 14 populasi dan Juni-Agustus 2000 pada 5 populasi saat tanaman kelapa berumur 18 tahun. Tanaman yang diamati 4 pohon diulang 3 kali setiap populasi sehingga total tanaman yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 19x4x3 « 228 pohon. Sifat yang diamati meliputi sifat-sifat morfologi batang, daun dan rangkaian bunga Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabilitas genetik sifal-sifal morfologi kelapa umumnya sempil. Beberapa sifat seperti: diameter batang 1,5 m dai permukaan lanah, panjang batang 11 bckas daun, langkai bunga tanpa bunga betina, dan jumlah bunga betina menunjukkan variabilitas genetik yang luas Pada umumnya hcritabilitas dalam am luas dan kemajuan genetik dalam persen untuk semua sifat tinggi, kecuali hentabilitas sifat tangkai bunga membawa bunga betina bemilai sedang. Terdapat korelasi genetik positif yang nyata pada sifat-sifat morfologi batang dengan daun dan rangkaian bunga, kecuali dengan jumlah bunga betina/tandan dan jumlah tandan/ph/lh. Dari 15 sifat yang diamati, hanya 6 sifat yang mempunyai korelasi genetik nyata dengan sifat jumlah bunga betina/tandan yaitu: diameter batang 1.5 m dari permukaan lanah (rg = -0.5215*), panjang batang 11 bckas daun (rg • -0.5369*), lebar anak daun (rg ■ -0.5961**), tebal tangkai landan (rg = 0.5802**), panjang rangkaian bunga (rg ■ -0,6143**), dan panjang tangkai bunga (rg = -0.4907*), sehingga sifat-sifat tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai kiteia seleksi untuk memperoleh jumlah bunga betina banyak per mayang pada lanaman kelapa.

Kata kunci: Kelapa, parameter genetik, korelasi, sifat morfologi

 

ABSRACT

Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Correlation Between Morphological Traits in Coconut (Cocos nucifera, Linn)

The objective of this experiment was to determine genetic parameters and correlation between morphological trails on the coconut population. A total of 19 local coconut populations were collected from some islands in Indonesia, planted at Pakuwon Experimental Garden, West Java in 1978 and 1982. The altitude is 450 meters above sea level with climate type Bl Oldeman. The total number of sample is 100 palms for each tall coconut with planting distance 9 x 9 m and 60 palms for each dwarf coconut with planting distance 7 x 7m. The observation was done in two steps i.e.: May - August 1996 on 14 populations and June - August 2000 on 5 populations when the coconut population was 18 years old. A number of 4 palms with 3 replications were observed of each population to measure morphological traits of he stem, leaf and inflorescence. Therefore, the total palms used in the experiment were 19 x 4 x 3 = 228. The results revealed that the genetic vaiability of coconut morphological trait were generally narrow. A few traits i.e.: stem diameter 1 5 m from ground level, stem length of 11 leaf scars, spadix without female flower, and number of female flowers/bunch showed a wide degree of variability. In general, the heritabilily estimates in broad sense and genetic gained in percent for all trails were high, except the henlability of spadix with female flower Irait was lowly. A positive significant genetic correlation were found to the morphology traits of stem with leaf and inllorcsccncc except Uic number of female flower/bunch and number of bunch/palm/ycar. From fifteen traits, only six traits had significant genetic correlation with the number of female flower Ihcy were diameter stem 1 5 m from ground level (rg 0.5215*), stem length of 11 leaf scars (rg - -0.5369'), leaflet width (rg - -0.5961**), peduncle thickness (rg 0.5802**), length of inflorescence (rg -0.6143**), and length of spadix (rg -0.4907*), and these traits could be used as selection criteria for selecting high female flower bunch on the coconut.

Keywords ;Cocos nucifera. genetic parameters, correlation, mor- phological trails


Keywords


Kelapa;parameter genetik;korelasi;sifat morfologi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v8n3.2002.97-102

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