PEMANFAATAN BAKTERI ENDOFIT DAN FOSFAT UNTUK PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN SAMBILOTO / Utilizing Endophytic Bacteria and Phosphate for Growth and Yieald of Andrographis paniculata

Gusmaini Gusmaini, Didy Sopandie, Sandra Arifin Aziz, Abdul Munif, Nurliani Bermawie


Andrographis paniculta produce andrographolide, which have functions as raw material for medicine. One can stimulate andrographolide yield by utilizing endophytic bacteria and phosphate. This research objectives were to obtain effect of endophytic bacteria and phosphate on growth, yield and andrographolide content, N, P, and K uptake of A. paniculta. The research was conducted at the experimental garden of ISMCRI, at Cimanggu, Bogor from June 2012-February 2013. The trial was arranged in Random Block Design, factorial, 9 treatments and 3 replications. The first factor were endophytic bacteria; 1) without endophytic bacteria, 2) 20CD, and 3) 20BB. The second factor were the levels of P; 1) without P, 2) 27 kg/ha P, and 3) 54 kg/ha P. The results showed that Endophytic bacteria application and P fertilizer significantly increased plant growth, dry matter yield, andrographolide content and yield, and N, P, K uptake, but there were no interaction between endophytic bacteria and P treatments. Giving of endophytic bacteria improved content and yield of andrographolide ranging 16,9-29,9% and 37,6-45,7% respectively. A dossage of 27 kg/ha P was recommended to produce dry matter and andrographolide yield, and andrographolide content obtained 2.56%. The best andrographolide yield should be harvested at the beginning of generative phase.

Keywords: Andrographis paniculata, andrographolide content, endophytic bacteria, phosphate, yield.



Tanaman sambiloto merupakan tanaman penghasil andrografolid, yang berfungsi sebagai bahan baku obat. Salah satu yang dapat memacu produksi andrographolid tersebut dengan memanfaatkan bakteri endofit dan fosfat. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bakteri endofit dan fosfat terhadap pertumbuhan, produksi dan kadar andrografolid serta serapan hara N, P, dan K pada tanaman sambiloto. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Cimanggu Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat (Balittro), Bogor dari bulan Juni 2012-Februari 2013. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok, faktorial, 9 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Faktor pertama yaitu bakteri endofit; 1) tanpa bakteri, 2) 20CD, dan 3) 20BB. Faktor kedua adalah dosis pupuk P; 1) tanpa pupuk, 2) 27 kg/ha P, dan 3) 54 kg/ha P. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bakteri endofit dan P nyata meningkatkan pertumbuhan, produksi biomas, kadar dan produksi andrografolid, serta serapan hara N, P, dan K pada umur tanaman 14 MST, namun tidak terdapat interaksi antara kedua faktor tersebut. Pemberian bakteri endofit dapat meningkatkan kadar dan produksi andrografolid, masing-masing berkisar 16,9-29,9% dan 37,6- 45,7%. Dosis 27 kg/ha P direkomendasikan untuk menghasilkan produksi bahan kering dan produksi andrografolid, dengan kadar andrografolid yang diperoleh 2,56%. Produksi andrografolid terbaik, tanaman dipanen pada fase awal generatif.

Kata kunci: Andrographis paniculata, andrografolid, bakteri endofit, pertumbuhan, fosfat, produksi.


Andrographis paniculata;andrographolide content;endophytic bacteria;phosphate;yield

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