PENGARUH JENIS PUPUK DASAR DAN SUSULAN TERHADAP PRODUKSI DAN MUTU TEMBAKAU CERUTU BESUKI

ABDUL RACHMAN, M. SHOLEH, EDI PURLANI

Abstract


Penelitian pemupukan tembakau cerutu besuki telah dilakukan di Desa Mangaran, Kecamatan Jenggawah, Kabupaten Jember (30 m dpi) untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis pupuk dasar dan pupuk susulan terhadap produksi dan mutu. Tembakau ditanam pada awal musim kemarau (disebut besnota), yaitu minggu ke 1 bulan Juli 2000. Lahan percobaan berjcnis tanah Aluvial dengan tekstur liat berkadar 44% liat, 20% debu, dan 46% pasir, 0.67% C-organik, 0.14% N total, 10.64 cmol/kg P tersedia, 0.45 cmol/kg K, 7.30 cmol/kg Ca, dan pH 6.62. Perlakuan disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok faktorial, dengan 3 ulangan Faktor petama adalah perlakuan pupuk dasar (jenis pupuk NPK dan SP36 + urea), sedangkan faktor kedua adalah perlakuan jenis pupuk susulan (urea, CN, CN+CPN, CN+PN, dan CSN). Ukuran petak percobaan 10 m x 7 m , jarak tanam (110 cm i 90 cm) x 35 cm, dengan populasi 200 tanaman per petak dan varietas 11382 Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pupuk dasar NPK tidak berbeda pengaruhnya dibanding dengan pupuk SP36+ urea terhadap hasil, ukuran, ketcbalan daun posisi KAK dan TNG, persentase daun pembalut-pembungkus dan kadar unsur hara daun. Namun perlakuan pupuk NPK menghasilkan daun KOS 3 lebih tipis, daya bakar daun KOS 1 dan KAK 3 yang lebih lama, nisbah K20/CaO yang lebih tinggi. Pupuk susulan CN i CPN dan CN + PN memberikan hasil dan kadar N daun yang lebih tinggi daripada perlakuan yang lain. Pupuk susulan tidak berpengaruh terhadap ukuran daun, ketebalan daun, daya bakar, persentase daun pembalul-pembungkus, kadar P2Oj. K20, dan CaO daun. Berdasarkan analisis kualitas semua pupuk altematif yang dicoba- kan, baik sebagai pupuk dasar maupun pupuk susulan, pupuk-pupuk tersebut dapat digunakan pada tembakau cerutu besuki. Selanjutnya, perlu dilakukan sosialisasi penggunaan pupuk altematif tersebut kepada petani.

Kata kunci: pupuk, produksi, mutu, Nicotiana tabacum, tembakau cerutu

ABSTRACT

Effect ofbasalfetilizers and side dressingfetilizer on the production and quality of besuki cigar tobacco

The expeiment was conducted in Mangaran, Jenggawah Distict, Jember (at the altitude of 30 m). The objective was to study the effect of basal fetilizers and side dressing fetilizer on the production and quality of besuki cigar tobacco. Tobacco was planted in early dry season, in irst week of July 2000 (named as besnota tobacco). The soil was alluvial with clay texture (44% clay, 20% silt, and 46% sand). Other characteristics of the soil was 0.67% C-organic, 0.14% total-N, 10.64 cmol/kg available P, 0.45 cmol/kg available K, 7.30 cmol/kg Ca, and pH 6.62. The treatment consisted of two factors, i.e. basal dressing (NPK compound fetilizer and SP36 + urea) and side dressing (urea, CN, CN + CPN, CN + PN, and CSN). The treatments were arranged in a factoially randomized block design with 3 replications. Planting space was double row (110 cm + 90cm) x 35 cm, 200 plants per plot. Tobacco vaiety was H382. The results of the experiment showed that the effect of NPK fetilizer was not significantly different from SP36 + urea, on the yield, leaf size, thickness of KAK and TNG leaf positions, wrapper + binder precentagc and chemical content of the leaves. However, the tobacco crop received NPK fetilizer had positive characteistics, i.e. thinner leaves (KOS 3), longer buning duration (KOS 1 and KAK 3), higher K20/CaO ratio than SP36 + urea (reatment. CN + CPN and CN + PN as side dressing treatments gave yield and N content higher than other treatments. Side dressing treatments did not affect the leaf size, thickness, buning duration, wrappcr+binder percentage. P2Oj. KjO, and CaO, content of the leaves. However, based on the quality analysis the fertilizers tested either as basal dressing or as side dressing can be used as an altenative for besuki cigar tobacco fetilization. Futhermore, the use of these altenative fetilizers need to be socialized to the tobacco farmers.

Keywords: Cigar tobacco, fetilizer, production, quality, Nicotiana tabacum


Keywords


Cigar tobacco;fetilizer;production;quality;Nicotiana tabacum

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v10n1.2004.34-40

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