POTASSIUM FERTILIZER AND YOUNG SHOOT REMOVAL OF LARGE WHITE GINGER PLANT IMPROVE RHIZOME SEEDS STORABILITY

Melati Melati, Satriyas Ilyas, Endah Retno Palupi, Anas D. Susila

Abstract


The application of the appropriate potassium dosage is expected to produce high quality of rhizome seeds, hence improving its storability.Growing shoots are a strong sink. Thus, shoot removal aims to divert the photosynthate partition of shoots to the rhizome to improve rhizome development. The purpose of the research was to evaluate K dosage and young shoot removal:s effect to improve the production and quality of rhizome seeds of large white ginger. The experiment was arranged in the glasshouse in a split-plot design with four replications. The main plot was shoot removal treatments: 1) un removal, and 2) young shoots removal at six months after planting(MAP). The subplots were five doses of K; 0, 150 kg/ha, 300kg/ha, 450kg/ha, 600 kg/ha equivalent to 0, 3.75, 7.5, 11.25 and 15 g/plant respectively. The potassium fertilization was two times at 1 and 3 MAP, half dosage for each application. There was no interaction between young shoot removal and potassium dosage on the rhizome’s yield, physical, and biochemical quality. However, potassium dosage affected seed viability significantly. Potassium dosage presented a quadratic response with 7.5 g K/plant gave the best seed viability, whereas the optimum dosage for plant height was at 6.7 g K/plant. Shoot removal at 6 MAP produced seeds with enhanced storability, up to 9 months. Furthermore, it also improved seed viability as indicated by better seed growth than unremoval shoot treatment.

Keywords: optimum dosage, seed quality, yield, Zingiber officinal.

 

Abstrak

PEMUPUKAN KALIUM DAN PEMBUANGAN TUNAS MUDA TANAMAN JAHE MENINGKATKAN DAYA SIMPAN BENIH JAHE PUTIH BESAR

Pemberian pupuk K yang tepat diharapkan dapat menghasilkan benih rimpang yang bermutu tinggi karena dapat disimpan dalam jangka waktu yang panjang. Tunas yang sedang berkembang merupakan sink yang kuat. Pembuangan tunas bertujuan untuk dapat mengalihkan partisi fotosintat dari tunas ke rimpang. Percobaan ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan dosis pupuk K dan mengetahui pengaruh pembuangan tunas muda terhadap produksi benih dan mutu rimpang jahe putih besar (JPB) sehingga memiliki daya simpan lama. Percobaan disusun dengan rancangan petak terbagi dengan empat ulangan. Petak utama adalah pembuangan tunas yaitu: 1)tanpa pembuangan tunas, dan 2)tunas muda dibuang pada 6 bulan setelah tanam (BST). Anak petak adalah lima dosis pupuk K yang diberikan pada 30 dan 90 BST yaitu: 1) tanpa K, 2) 150 kg/ha, 300 kg/ha, 450kg/ha, 600 kg/ha. Dosis pupuk tersebut setara dengan penambahan 0; 3,75; 7,5; 11,25 dan 15 g per tanaman masing-masing 1/2 dosis pada setiap pemberian. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa faktor tunggal pembuangan tunas muda pada umur 6 bulan setelah tanam (BST) dan pupuk K tidak berpengaruh terhadap produksi dan mutu fisik serta biokimia rimpang. Dosis pupuk K memengaruhi viabilitas benih yang dihasilkan. Viabilitas benih terbaik didapatkan pada penambahan pupuk K dosis 7,5 g/tanaman dengan respon kuadratik dan konsentrasi optimum untuk tinggi tanaman adalah 6,7 g/tanaman. Pembuangan tunas muda tanaman induk pada 6 BST menghasilkan benih yang dapat disimpan dalam jangka waktu 9 bulan serta viabilitas benih dengan pertumbuhan bibit yang lebih baik dibandingkan tanaman tanpa pembuangan tunas.

Kata kunci: dosis optimum, mutu benih, produksi, Zingiber officinal.


Keywords


optimum dosage; seed quality; yield; Zingiber officinale

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v26n2.2020.92-107

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