PENGARUH IRADIASI SINAR GAMMA (60Co) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI JAHE PUTIH KECIL (Zingiber officinale var.a ma rum)

NURLIANI BERMAWIE, NUR LAELA W. MEILAWATI, S. PURWIYANTI, MELATI MELATI

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Keragaman  genetik  plasma  nutfah  jahe  rendah  sehingga  perlu
dilakukan  peningkatan  keragaman,  antara  lain  dengan  iradiasi sinar
gamma. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dosis iradiasi
terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi jahe putih kecil.  Penelitian dilakukan
di Laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat serta Kebun
Percobaan Cicurug, Sukabumi pada bulan Juni 2010 sampai dengan Mei
2011. Iradiasi dilakukan di P3TIR, BATAN, Jakarta. Percobaan disusun
menggunakan rancangan split plot dengan petak utama dua aksesi jahe
putih kecil ZIOF 0048 dan HALINA 1 dan anak petak adalah 11 dosis
iradiasi (0-50 Gy) dengan interval 5 Gy. Perlakuan diulang sebanyak tiga
kali. Pengamatan karakter morfologi dilakukan secara kuantitatif dan
kualitatif pada umur 2, 3, dan 4 BST. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan aksesi
berpengaruh terhadap radiosensitivitas. Aksesi HALINA 1 lebih sensitif
dibandingkan   dengan   ZIOF 0048   ditunjukkan   dengan   nilai   LD50
HALINA 1 (11,07 Gy) lebih rendah dari LD50 ZIOF 0048 (13,43 Gy).
Interaksi aksesi pada dosis 5 dan 10 Gy memiliki nilai terbaik pada  tinggi
tanaman, ukuran daun serta jumlah anakan. Dosis mempengaruhi tinggi
tanaman, ukuran daun, diameter dan panjang batang, serta jumlah daun.
Pertumbuhan tanaman semakin meningkat dengan bertambahnya umur
tanaman. Namun, semakin tinggi dosis iradiasi, pertumbuhan tanaman
semakin melambat.  Pertumbuhan tanaman terbaik diperoleh pada dosis 5
Gy, dan tidak berbeda dengan kontrol. Bobot dan ukuran rimpang terbaik
(964 g/rumpun) diperoleh dari HALINA 1 pada dosis 10 Gy, dan berbeda
dengan kontrol (454 g/rumpun), serta perlakuan lainnya.

Kata kunci:  Zingiber officinale var. amarum, iradiasi sinar gamma (60Co), keragaman genetik, mutasi, karakter morfologi.

 

The Effect of Gamma Irradiation (60Co) on the Growth and Production of Small White Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. amarum)

ABSTRACT

Genetic variability of ginger germplasm was low, therefore it was
necessary to broaden genetic variability using gamma irradiation. This
research aimed to see the effect of irradiation on the growth of small white
ginger. This study was conducted in the Plant Breeding Laboratory,
Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute and the Cicurug
Experimental Garden Sukabumi from June 2010 to May 2011. Irradiation
was undertaken in P3TIR, BATAN, Jakarta. The experiment was arranged
in a split plot design with the main plot was two accessions HALINA 1
and ZIOF 00 48, and the sub plots was 11 irradiation doses (0-50 Gy) with 5 Gy interval.  The experiment was replicated three times.  Parameters
observed were quantitative and qualitative characters at 2,3 and 4 months
after   planting (MAPs).   Results   showed   that   accession   influenced
radiosensitivity. Accession HALINA 1 was more radiosensitive than ZIOF
0048, indicated by LD50 of HALINA 1 was 11.0693 Gy, lower than ZIOF
0048 13.4254 Gy. Interaction between accessions at 5 and 10 Gy showed
the highest plant height, leaf size, and number of shoots. Irradiation dose affected plant height, leaf size, stem diameter and length, and number of leaf. The plant growth increased in conjunction with plant age, but the
higher irradiation dose, the growth of plants slowed down. The best plant
growth was obtained from 5 Gy, not different from control. The highest
rhizome weight (964 g/plant) was obtained from HALINA 1 treated with 10 Gy, differ from control (545 g/plant) and the other treatments.

Keywords:  Zingiber officinale var. amarum, gamma irradiation (60Co), genetic variability, mutation, morphological characters.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v21n2.2015.47-56

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