PENGARUH BAHAN ORGANIK DAN PUPUK NPK TERHADAP HASIL SERAT ROSELA DI LAHAN PODSOLIK MERAH KUNING KALIMANTAN SELATAN

Budi SANTOSO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Lahan podsolik merah kuning (PMK) berpotensi untuk pengem-
bangan tanaman rosela. Kendala utama dalam lahan PMK adalah miskin
unsur hara makro dan mikro, kandungan Al dan Fe tinggi, pH tanah rendah
dan sering terjadi fiksasi P. Daya dukung lahan ini dapat diperbaiki dengan
memberikan bahan amelioran seperti kapur atau bahan organik. Penelitian
dilaksanakan di Desa Sabuhur II, Kecamatan Jorong, Kabupaten Tanah
Laut, Kalimantan Selatan pada bulan Januari sampai dengan Desember
2001. Perlakuan disusun dalam rancangan petak terbagi yang diulang tiga
kali. Sebagai petak utama terdiri atas lima jenis bahan organik, yakni (1)
pupuk kandang kotoran ternak sapi, (2) pupuk kandang dari kotoran
unggas, (3) kompos dari jerami, (4) kompos dari alang-alang, dan (5)
kompos dari serpihan kayu rosela, masing-masing dosisnya 5 t/ha. Anak
petak terdiri atas tiga dosis pupuk anorganik yaitu (A) Tanpa pupuk
anorganik, (B) (45 kg N + 80 kg P 2 O 5  + 60 kg K 2 O) /ha, dan (C) (90 kg N
+ 80 kg P 2 O 5  (fosfat alam) + 60 kg K 2 O) /ha. Bahan tanaman yang
digunakan galur rosela CPI 115357. Ukuran petak 4 m x 6 m dengan jarak
tanam 20 cm x 20 cm. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk
mendapatkan jenis bahan organik dan dosis pupuk anorganik (NPK) yang
dapat mendukung hasil serat rosela yang tinggi di lahan PMK Kalimantan
Selatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bahwa kombinasi perlakuan
pemberian (5 t pupuk kotoran unggas + 45 kg N + 80 kg P 2 O 5  (fosfat alam)
+ 60 kg K 2 O) /ha memberikan pertumbuhan tinggi tanaman, diameter
batang, hasil brangkasan dan hasil serat kering tertinggi rosela masing-
masing 262,33 mm; 17,65 mm; 47,78 t dan 2,83 t/ha.
Kata kunci : Rosela, Hibiscus sabdarifa L., podsolik merah kuning,
bahan organik, pupuk organik, hasil, Kalimantan Selatan


ABSTRACT
Effect of NPK fertilizer and organic materials on rosella
fiber yield in red yellow podzolic soil of South Kalimantan
Red yellow podzolic soil is potential for rosella development. The
major problem of red yellow podzolic soil is low fertility of soil, especially
macro and micro elements, high content of Al and Fe and P fixation often
happened. The soil capacity can be improved by application of ameliorant
materials such as lime or organic materials. The experiment was conducted
in Sabuhur II Village, Jorong Sub District, Tanah Laut District in South
Kalimantan during growing season of January to December 2001. The
experiment was designed in split-plot with three replications. The main
plots were source of organic materials (1) cows manures, (2) chicken
manures, (3) compost of rice hays, (4) compost of alang-alang, and (5)
compost of rosella stems with dose 5 t/ha respectively. The sub plots were
the dosage of NPK fertilizer (A) zero fertilizer, (B) 45 kg N + 80 kg P 2 O 5  +
60 kg K 2 O /ha, and (C) 90 kg N + 80 kg K 2 O 5  + 60 kg K 2 O/ ha. The rosella
clone was CPI 115357 line, plot size 4 m x 6 m, and plant spacing 20 cm x
20 cm. The purpose of this experiment was to find out the kind of organic
materials and dosage of unorganic fertilizer which can support rosella fiber
yield in red yellow podzolic soil of South Kalimantan. The result showed
that the application of 5 tons chicken manures + 45 kg N + 80 kg P 2 O 5
(rock phosphate) + 60 kg K 2 O/ha gave the best plant height, stem
diameter, fresh and dry fiber yield of rosella which were 262,33 cm; 17,65
mm; 47,76 tons and 2,83 tons respectively.
Key words : Rosella, Hibiscus sabdarifa L., red yellow podzolic, organic
materials, unorganic fertilizer, yield, South Kalimantan


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v11n3.2005.85-93

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