PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI NILAM MENGGUNAKAN PSEUDOMONAD FLUORESEN

NASRUN NASRUN, CHRISTANTI CHRISTANTI, TRIWIDODO ARWIYANTO, IKA MARISKA

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penelitian pengendalian penyakit layu bakteri nilam (Ralstonia
solanacearum) menggunakan pseudomonad fluoresen di kebun petani
nilam Desa Situak Pasaman Barat, Sumatera Barat telah dilakukan pada
bulan Oktober 2003 sampai dengan Juni 2004. Penelitian ini bertujuan
untuk mendapatkan pseudomonad fluoresen yang berpotensi untuk
mengendalikan penyakit layu bakteri, dan meningkatkan pertumbuhan
dan produksi nilam. Isolat pseudomonad fluoresen Pf 63, Pf 90, Pf 91, Pf
147, dan Pf 180 sebagai perlakuan diisolasi dari rizosfer nilam sehat, dan
diseleksi  berdasarkan  kemampuan  antagonistik  terhadap  R.
solanacearum secara in vitro di Laboratorium Bakteriologi Tumbuhan
Fakultas Pertanian UGM. Isolat pseudomonad fluoresen tersebut
diintroduksikan ke nilam dan diadaptasikan selama 1 minggu sebelum
ditanam. Tanaman yang telah diperlakukan dengan isolat pseudomonad
fluoresen ditanam pada kebun yang telah terinfeksi dengan patogen pada
bulan Oktober 2003. Percobaan disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok
(RAK) dengan 6 ulangan. Parameter pengamatan adalah masa inkubasi,
intensitas penyakit, pertumbuhan tanaman dan produksi minyak nilam.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat pseudomonad fluoresen
dapat mengendalikan penyakit layu bakteri dengan perpanjangan masa
inkubasi 6-52 hari dan penekanan intensitas penyakit 31,11 – 50,56%.
Disamping itu isolat pseudomonad fluoresen dapat mempengaruhi
peningkatan pertumbuhan tanaman yaitu tinggi tanaman (6,7 – 26,3 cm),
jumlah daun (4,6 – 30,1 daun/tanaman) dan berat kering daun (24,5 –
154,3 g/tanaman), dan produksi minyak nilam terutama jumlah minyak
(4,8 – 22,3 ml/tanaman). Hasil percobaan ini menunjukkan bahwa isolat
Pf 91 mempunyai kemampuan antagonistik tertinggi dalam mengen-
dalikan penyakit layu bakteri di lapangan.
Kata kunci : Nilam, Pogostemon cablin Benth, penyakit layu, bakteri,
pengendalian hayati, pseudomonad fluoresen


ABSTRACT
Controlling bacterial wilt disease on patchouli plant with
fluorescent pseudomonad
The study of controlling bacterial wilt disease on patchouli plant
(Ralstonia solanacearum) with fluorescent pseudomonad was carried out
in a farmer’s field in Situak Village West Pasaman, West Sumatera from
October 2003 to June 2004. The aims of the study were to find out the
effectiveness of fluorescent pseudomonad for controlling bacterial wilt
disease, increasing plant growth and production. Isolates of fluorescent
pseudomonad Pf 63, Pf 90, Pf 91, Pf 147 and Pf 180 as treatments were
isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy patchouli plant, and selected
based on antagonistic activity on R. solanacearum in vitro at the
Laboratory of Plant Bacteriology, Faculty of Agriculture, UGM. The
isolates were inoculated on patchouli plant and adapted for one week
before planting. The plants treated with fluorescent pseudomonad
isolates were planted in the field infected with pathogen on October
2003. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design
(RBD) with six replications. The assessment parameters were incubation
period, disease intensity, plant growth and production of patchouli plants.
The results showed that fluorescent pseudomonad isolates could control
the bacterial wilt disease and delay the incubation period 6-52 days and
decrease the disease intensity 31,11–50,56%. In addition fluorescent
pseudomonad isolates could affect the increase of plant growth, i.e. plant
height ( 6,7 – 26,3 cm ), leaf numbers (4,6 – 30,1 leaves/plant) and dry
weight of leaves (24,5 – 154,3 g/plant), and plant production, especially
oil content (4,8 – 22,3 ml/plant). The results of the experiment showed
that Pf 91 isolate had the highest antagonistic activity on controlling the
bacterial wilt disease on field.
Key words : Patchouli, Pogostemon cablin Benth, wilt disease,
bacterial, biological control, fluorescent pseudomonad


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v11n1.2005.19-24

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