PENGARUH PEMOTONGAN BUNGA, PUCUK DAN PENGHENTIAN PENAMBAHAN CAHAYA PADA TANAMAN MENTHA (Mentha piperita L.)

ROSIHAN ROSMAN, SRI SETYATI HARJAD, SUGENG SUDIATSO, SUDIRMAN YAHYA, BAMBANG SAPTA PURWOKO, CHAIRUL CHAIRUL

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penelitian bertujuan mengkaji pengaruh pemotongan bunga, pucuk
dan penghentian pencahayaan pada tanaman M. piperita L. Penelitian
dilakukan di Instalasi Penelitian Lembang, Balai Penelitian Tanaman
Rempah dan Obat, Jawa Barat, dari bulan Januari sampai Juli 2000, dalam
dua tahap : tahap pertama membuat variasi lingkungan cahaya dan habitus
tanaman, dan tahap kedua penyulingan dan analisis komponen minyak
dengan kromatografi gas spektrometer massa. Penelitian menggunakan
tanaman yang tidak berbunga akibat panjang hari normal dan tanaman
berbunga akibat penambahan cahaya empat jam, pukul 18.00-22.00 mulai
umur 30 hari. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok 5
perlakuan, yaitu B 0 (tanaman berbunga dibiarkan), B 1 (tanaman berbunga
dipotong bunganya), B 2 (tanaman berbunga diletakkan pada kondisi
normal), B 3  (tanaman tidak berbunga dibiarkan), dan B 4 (tanaman tidak
berbunga dipotong pucuk). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa
pemotongan bunga meningkatkan mentol dan menekan menthofuran.
Penghentian penambahan cahaya 4 jam pada tanaman berbunga
menjadikan tanaman merunduk, kadar mentol menurun dan menthofuran
meningkat. Pemotongan pucuk dapat menurunkan kandungan mentol dan
meningkatkan kandungan menthofuran.
Kata kunci : Mentha, Mentha piperita L., pemotongan bunga, pucuk,
pencahayaan, kandungan mentol, kandungan menthofuran


ABSTRACT
The effect of inflorescent pinching , bud pinching, and
normal light period on peppermint (Mentha piperita L)
Experiment on the effect of pinching the inflorescent, pinching the
bud, and normal light period on peppermint (Mentha piperita L) was
carried out at the experimental garden Lembang of Research Institute for
Spice and Medicinal Crops, West Java, from January to July, 2000. The
study was conducted with two steps i.e. The first step was manipulation of
photo period using TL lamps and the second step was distillation and
analisis of peppermint oil from their products with gas chromatography
and mass spectrometry. The experiment, 5 treatments were given i.e.
using long day treated plants, 3 treatments are given i.e. control, pinching
the inflorescent and with holding light supplement (four hours light
supplement at the age of 30 days), and using control plants, 2 treaments
are given i.e. no pinching and pinching of terminal bud (control or normal
light period). The result showed that pinching the inflorescent elevate the
menthol and reduce the menthofuran content. Pinching the bud of non
flowering plants can reduce the menthol and increase the menthofuran
content.
Key words : Peppermint, Mentha piperita L, inflorescent pinching, bud,
pinching, light period, menthol content, menthofuran content


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v11n1.2005.7-12

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