HUBUNGAN ANTARA KERAPATAN POPULASI KEPIK RENDA, Diconocoris hewetti (Dist) (HEMIPTERA : TINGIDAE) DAN KEHILANGAN HASIL PADA TANAMAN LADA

I WAYAN LABA, A. RAUF, U. KARTOSUWONDO U. KARTOSUWONDO, M. SOEHARDJAN

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Kepik renda, Diconocoris hewetti (Dist) (Hemiptera : Tingidae)
merupakan salah satu hama yang menyerang tanaman lada di Indonesia.
Hama ini mengisap bunga lada, dan dapat menggagalkan pembuahan.
Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kerapatan
populasi D. hewetti dan kerusakan bunga serta pembentukan buah pada
berbagai fase bunga. Penelitian dilaksanakan di rumah kaca dan kebun
percobaan Petaling BPTP Kepulauan Bangka Belitung pada musim hujan
(Nopember 2003 – Pebruari 2004). Penelitian rumah kaca menggunakan
lada perdu varietas LDL umur ± 1 tahun. Kerapatan populasi nimfa instar
5 dan imago masing-masing 0,1 dan 2 per tandan bunga masing-masing
pada 3 fase bunga. Periode mengisap bunga selama 24 jam. Rancangan
percobaan yang digunakan adalah acak lengkap dengan pola faktorial dan
diulang 5 kali. Percobaan lapangan menggunakan varietas LDL, umur ± 6
tahun. Populasi imago 0, 1, 2, 3, dan 4 per 4 tandan bunga masing-masing
pada 3 fase bunga. Periode mengisap bunga selama 72 jam. Untuk nimfa
menggunakan kerapatan populasi 0, 1, 2, dan 3 per tandan. Pemaparan
serangga selama 24 jam. Rancangan percobaan untuk nimfa menggunakan
acak kelompok dengan pola faktorial dan diulang 5 kali, sedangkan untuk
imago juga menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan pola faktorial
dan diulang 6 kali. Parameter yang diamati adalah persentase kerusakan
bunga, buah terbentuk, buah yang tidak terbentuk dan kehilangan hasil.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata antara kerapatan
populasi kepik renda dengan kerusakan bunga lada dan pembentukan
buah. Pada kerapatan 2 ekor nimfa maupun imago menunjukkan
kerusakan bunga dan kehilangan hasil yang paling tinggi. Kerusakan
bunga dan pembentukan buah akibat serangan imago dan nimfa tidak
menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata. Tingkat kerusakan bunga di rumah
kaca antara 67,00–87,89%, sedangkan di lapangan antara 61,10–85,30%,
disebabkan oleh imago kepik renda, dan 71,00-93,30% oleh nimfa.
Kehilangan hasil di rumah kaca antara 55,07–83,04%, sedangkan di
lapangan antara 35,30–82,89%, disebabkan oleh imago, sedangkan oleh
nimfa berkisar antara 73,24–89,05%. Tingkat kerusakan bunga lebih tinggi
pada fase 1 dan 2 dibandingkan dengan fase 3. Hasil penelitian ini
memberikan indikasi bahwa serangan oleh satu ekor nimfa maupun imago
kepik renda mengakibatkan kerusakan bunga minimal 61,10% dan
kehilangan hasil minimal 35,30%.
Kata kunci : Lada, Piper nigrum, hama, Diconocoris hewetti, kerusakan
bunga, kehilangan hasil


ABSTRACT
Relationship between the population densities of blossom
sucking lace bug Diconocoris hewetti (Dist) (Hemiptera;
Tingidae) and yield losses on pepper plantation
Blossom sucking lace bug, Diconocoris hewetti (Dist) (Hemiptera;
Tingidae) is one of the pest insect attacking pepper in Indonesia. This pest
insect sucks pepper blossom liquid and disturb fruit formation. The
objective of this experiment was to find out the relationship between the
population densities of blossom sucking lace bug, D. hewetti and flower
damage, number of fruits formed and yield losses of pepper at various
flower phases. These studies were conducted in a green house and pepper
plantation in the Institute of Assessment Agricultural Technology, Bangka
Belitung Island during rainy season (November 2003 to February 2004).
The green house research used bushy pepper more or less 1 year old. The
lace bug of the last instar or 5 th instar nymph and adult were used at
population density : 0, 1 and 2 insects/bunch in 3 blossom phases
respectively. Feeding period of lace bug was 24 hours. Design of this
experiment was completely randomized with factorial design and 5
replications. Field study used LDL pepper variety with aged ± 6 years.
The population densities of adult lace bug were: 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 per 4
bunches on 3 types of pepper blossom phases respectively. Feeding period
of lace bug was 72 hours. Field study also used last instar nymph with
population density : 0, 1, 2 and 3/bunch. Feeding period was 24 hours.
Randomized block design with factorial and 5 replications were used on
instar nymph, while on the adult stadium randomized block design with
factorial and 6 replications were also used. The intensity of flower
damage, fruits formed, fruits unformed and yield losses were counted. The
result revealed that the number of fruits formed and yield losses were
significantly different among population density of lace bug. The
population densities of two lace bug caused higher flower damage and
yield losses than other population densities. Flowers damage, fruits
formation and yield losses caused by nymph and adult were not
significantly different. The level of flower damage in green house
observation was between 67.00 – 87.89%, while in the field was between
61.10 – 85.30% caused by adult, and 71.00 – 93.30% caused by nymph.
Yield loss of pepper was 55.07 – 83.04% in the green house, while the
yield losses in the field was 35.30 – 82.89% due to the attack of adult.
Yield loss caused by nymph was 73.24 – 89.05%. The level of flower
damage on phases 1 and 2 were higher than the flower damage of phase
3. This research indicated that the attack of one adult or one nymph of
lace bug, D. hewetti caused flower damage minimum 61.10% and yield
loss minimum 35.30%.
Key words : Pepper, Piper nigrum, pest insect, Diconocoris hewetti,
flower damage, yield loss


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v11n1.2005.1-6

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