RESPON TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) HASIL RIMPANG KULTUR JARINGAN GENERASI KEDUA TERHADAP PEMUPUKAN

ENDANG HADIPOENTYANTI, SITTI FATIMAH SYAHID

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penelitian mengenai respon temulawak hasil rimpang kultur
jaringan generasi kedua terhadap pemupukan telah dilaksanakan di lahan
petani Sumur Wangi, Kecamatan Tanah Sareal, Bogor dari bulan Oktober
2002 sampai bulan September 2003. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan
sebagai benih adalah rimpang induk temulawak hasil kultur jaringan
generasi kedua. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah : (1) tanpa pupuk (kontrol),
(2) pupuk kandang kambing 1 kg/tanaman, (3) pupuk kandang kambing 2
kg/tanaman, (4) pupuk kandang kambing 1 kg/tanaman + pupuk buatan
yaitu urea 2 g/tanaman, SP-36 1,8 g/tanaman dan KCL 2,7 g/tanaman dan,
(5) pupuk kandang kambing 2 kg/tanaman + pupuk buatan urea 2
g/tanaman, SP-36 1,8 g/tanaman dan KCL 2,7 g/tanaman. Rancangan yang
digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Setiap
ulangan terdiri atas sepuluh tanaman. Jarak tanam yang digunakan adalah
60 cm x 60 cm. Parameter yang diamati adalah persentase tumbuh, jumlah
anakan, tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, panjang dan lebar daun serta lingkar
batang pada umur empat bulan, bobot rimpang per tanaman, panjang, lebar
dan diameter rimpang, jumlah rimpang induk serta analisa mutu yang
meliputi kadar air, kadar minyak atsiri dan kurkumin pada umur
sembilan bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah anakan,
tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun dan panjang daun tidak dipengaruhi oleh
aplikasi pemupukan. Respon tanaman terhadap aplikasi pemupukan
berpengaruh terhadap parameter lebar daun dan lingkar batang.
Selanjutnya pemupukan berpengaruh nyata terhadap berat rimpang,
panjang rimpang, lebar rimpang serta jumlah rimpang induk namun
tidak berpengaruh terhadap diameter rimpang. Kandungan kurkumin
paling tinggi diperoleh pada perlakuan tanpa pemupukan.
Kata kunci : Temulawak,  Curcuma  xanthorrhiza,  kultur  jaringan,
pemupukan, pertumbuhan, produksi, mutu, Jawa Barat
ABSTRACT
Response of Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.)
derived from rhizome in vitro of the second generation to
fertilizer aplication
The experiment was conducted to study the response of temulawak
derived from rhizome in vitro of the second generation to fertilizer
application. It was carried out in a farmer field at Sumur Wangi, Bogor
from October 2002 to September 2003. Plant materials used were obtained
from in vitro rhizome of the second generation. Treatments tested were
five level of manure fertilizer and artificial fertilizer : (1) without fertilizer
(control), (2) stable manure 1 kg/plant, (3) stable manure 2 kg/plant, (4)
stable manure 1 kg/plant + artificial fertilizer i.e urea 2 g/plant, SP-36 1.8
g/plant and KCL 2.7 g/plant and (5) stable manure 2 kg/plant + artificial
fertilizer i.e urea 2 g/plant, SP-36 1.8 g/plant and KCL 2.7 g/plant. The
experiment was designed using a randomized block design with three
replications, ten plants per replication. Plant spacing was 60 cm x 60 cm.
The parameters observed were growth percentage, number of tillers, plant
height, number of leaves, length and width of leaves, stem coil at four
months of age, rhizome weight, length and width, rhizome diameter and
number of main rhizomes. In addition, quality analysis was also conducted
on water, essential, oil and curcumin content, nine months of age. Result
showed that fertilizer treatment did not significantly increase the number
of tillers, plant height, leaf number, rhizome length and diameter compared
with without fertilizer, but it significantly increased the leaf width, stem
coil, rhizome weight, length and width and also the number of main
rhizomes. The highest curcumin content was achieved by those without
fertilizer treatment.
Key words : Temulawak, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, tissue culture, fertilizer
application, growth, yield, quality, West Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v13n3.2007.106-110

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