VARIASI GENETIK, HERITABILITAS, DAN KORELASI GENOTIPIK SIFAT-SIFAT PENTING TANAMAN WIJEN (Sesamum indicum L.)

SUDARMADJI SUDARMADJI, RUSIM MARDJONO, HADI SUDARMO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penelitian ini merupakan pengujian terhadap genotip-genotip hasil
persilangan tanaman wijen, dengan tujuan mendapatkan informasi
mengenai variasi genetik, heritabilitas, dan korelasi genotipik beberapa sifat
penting hasil persilangan tanaman wijen. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun
Percobaan Pasirian, Lumajang, Jawa Timur pada bulan April 2002 –
Agustus 2003. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelom-
pok dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1) sebagian
besar sifat yang diamati mempunyai variasi genetik yang cukup besar, (2)
nilai heritabilitas (dalam arti luas) tinggi terdapat pada sifat tinggi tanaman,
umur berbunga, umur panen, jumlah cabang per tanaman, jumlah polong
per tanaman, panjang polong, berat 1000 biji, dan hasil biji per hektar,
sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai kriteria seleksi pada generasi awal, dan
(3) korelasi genotipik terhadap hasil biji per hektar terjadi pada sifat tinggi
tanaman dan berat 1000 biji pada persilangan Sbr 1 X Si 13, sedangkan
pada persilangan Sbr 1 X Si 22, dan Sbr 1 X Si 26 terjadi korelasi genotipik
antara hasil biji per hektar dengan tinggi tanaman dan jumlah cabang per
tanaman.
Kata kunci : Wijen, Sesamum indicum L., persilangan, genotip, variasi
genetik, heritabilitas, korelasi genotipik, pertumbuhan, hasil,
Jawa Timur
ABSTRACT
Genetic variations, heritability and genotypic correlations
of important characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum
L.)
The experiment was conducted to evaluate genetic variations,
heritability, and genotypic correlations of important characteristics of
sesame. The experiment was located at Pasirian Research Station,
Lumajang, East Java from April 2002 – August 2003. Randomized block
design with three replications was used in the experiment. The result of the
experiment showed that: (1) generally, the genetic variations for all traits
were high enough, (2) the heritability values (in broad sense) on plant
height, flowering time, harvest time, number of branches per plant, number
of pods per plant, length of pods, 1000-seed weight, and grain yield per
hectare were high, indicating that the inheritance of these traits were simple
inheritance and selection can be performed in early generation, and (3) in
Sbr 1 X Si 13 crosses, plant height and 1000-seeed weight had genotypic
correlation with grain yield per hectare, then plant height and number of
branches per plant had genotypic correlation with grain yield per hectare in
Sbr 1 X Si 22, and Sbr 1 X Si 26 crosses.
Key words : Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., crossing, genotype, genetic
variations, heritability, genotypic correlation, growth, yield,
East Jav

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v13n3.2007.88-92

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