KETAHANAN BEBERAPA AKSESI KAPAS TERHADAP HAMA PENGISAP DAUN Amrasca biguttula (ISHIDA)

I G.A.A. INDRAYANI, SIWI SUMARTINI, B. HELIYANTO B. HELIYANTO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Amrasca biguttula (Ishida) adalah serangga hama pengisap daun
yang sangat potensial menurunkan produktivitas kapas. Pengendaliannya
secara kimiawi menimbulkan banyak masalah lingkungan, seperti
pencemaran dan peningkatan resistensi hama terhadap insektisida kimia
sintetis. Salah satu solusi dalam masalah tersebut adalah penggunaan
varietas tahan (resisten) yang juga merupakan bagian dari pengendalian
hama terpadu (PHT) pada kapas. Penelitian ketahanan beberapa aksesi
kapas terhadap A. biguttula (Ishida) dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Balai
Penelitian Tanaman Tembakau dan Serat di Asembagus, Situbondo, mulai
Januari hingga Desember 2006. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengetahui
ketahanan beberapa aksesi kapas terhadap serangan hama pengisap daun,
A. biguttula. Sebagai perlakuan adalah 30 aksesi kapas yang ditanam
dalam plot berukuran 10 m x 3 m, dengan jarak tanam 100 cm x 25 cm,
satu tanaman per lobang. Setiap aksesi disusun dalam rancangan acak
kelompok dengan tiga kali ulangan. Parameter yang diamati adalah jumlah
nimfa A. biguttula per daun, jumlah bulu daun per cm 2 luas daun, dan
posisi bulu terhadap lamina (tegak/rebah), serta skor kerusakan tanaman.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa setiap aksesi kapas berpotensi
terserang A. biguttula, meskipun tingkat populasi hama ini tidak
menunjukkan perbedaan nyata antar aksesi. Terjadi korelasi negatif (R 2 =
0,2425) antara jumlah bulu daun dan populasi nimfa A. biguttula dan
antara jumlah bulu daun dan skor kerusakan tanaman (R 2 = 0,2027).
Berdasarkan jumlah bulu daun, aksesi kapas yang termasuk kategori
sedikit berbulu dengan kriteria ketahanan sedikit tahan adalah: AC 134,
Stoneville 7, Fai Nai, SHR, CRDI-1, Kanesia 5, Kanesia 8, dan Kanesia 9.
Sedangkan aksesi lainnya termasuk kategori tidak berbulu dan peka
terhadap serangan A. biguttula.
Kata kunci : Kapas, Gossypium hirsutum, aksesi, hama, Amrasca
biguttula (Ishida), toleran, peka, kerusakan, Jawa Timur
ABSTRACT
Resistance of several cotton accessions to sucking insect
pest, Amrasca biguttula (Ishida)
Amrasca biguttula (Ishida) is a sucking insect pest which potentially
reduces cotton productivity. Its chemical control often cause environ-
mental problems mainly air pollution and increase of pest resistance to
certain chemical insecticides. One solution can be used to solve these
problems is by using resistant variety that is also an integral part of the
integrated pest management (IPM). Study on the resistance of several
cotton accessions to sucking insect pest, Amrasca biguttula (Ishida) was
conducted at the Experimental Station of the Indonesian Tobacco and
Fiber Crops Research Institute (IToFCRI) in Asembagus, Situbondo, East
Java, from January to December 2006. The objective of the study was to
find out the resistance of cotton accessions to sucking insect pest. Thirty
accessions of cotton were used as treatment and were planted in plots 10 m
x 3 m with plant spacing 100 cm x 25 cm, one plant per hole. Each
accession was arranged in a randomized block design with three
replications. Parameters observed were number of nymph of A. biguttula,
number of leaf hair, leaf hairs position (erect or lie down), and score of
damage. The result showed that every accession of cotton can be attacked
by A. biguttula although the insect population was not significantly
different among accessions. There is negative correlation (R 2 = 0.2425)
between number of leaf hair and population of A. biguttula and between
number of leaf hair and score of plant damage (R 2 = 0.2027). Accessions
that categorized as lightly hairy and moderately resistant to A. biguttula
were AC 134, Stoneville 7, Fai Nai, SHR, CRDI-1, Kanesia 5, Kanesia 8,
and Kanesia 9, while the others were categorized as glabrous and
susceptible to the sucking pest.
Key words: Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, accession, insect pest, Amrasca
biguttula (Ishida), tolerant, sensitive, damage, East Jav

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v13n3.2007.81-87

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