GALUR HARAPAN TEMBAKAU TEMANGGUNG PRODUKSI TINGGI DAN TAHAN PENYAKIT LINCAT

FATKHUR ROCHMAN, SUWARSO SUWARSO, A.S. MURDIYATI A.S. MURDIYATI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Masalah  utama  tembakau  Temanggung  adalah  rendahnya
produktivitas yang disebabkan oleh mundurnya daya dukung lahan karena
erosi dan endemi penyakit lincat (kompleks nematoda Meloidogyne spp,
bakteri Ralstonia solanacearum, dan cendawan Phytophthora nicotianae).
Saat ini telah diperoleh enam galur hasil persilangan dari varietas Sindoro
1 (moderat tahan terhadap Ralstonia solanacearum tetapi rentan terhadap
Meloidogyne spp. dan sangat rentan terhadap Phytophthora nicotianae)
dengan tembakau virginia yang tahan terhadap ketiga patogen tersebut.
Evaluasi terhadap hasil, indeks mutu, indeks tanaman dan ketahanan
terhadap ketiga patogen telah dilakukan di 3 lokasi selama tiga tahun
dengan rancangan acak kelompok tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa ada dua galur harapan yaitu (1) Galur A dengan rata-
rata produktivitas : 0,880 ton rajangan kering per ha dan indeks mutu
40,28 indeks tanaman 35,47 dan kadar nikotin 5,52%. Produktivitas galur
A meningkat 48,08%, indeks mutu meningkat 4,87% dan indeks tanaman
meningkat 53,73% serta kadar nikotin menurun 15,06% dibanding varietas
standar. Galur A memiliki sifat moderat tahan terhadap bakteri Ralstonia
solanacearum dan toleran terhadap nematoda Meloidogyne spp. (2) Galur
E dengan rata-rata produktivitas : 0,869 ton rajangan kering per ha, indeks
mutu 36,01 indeks tanaman 31,87 dan kadar nikotin 6,00%. Produktivitas
galur E meningkat 46,23%, indeks mutu menurun 6,25% dan indeks
tanaman meningkat 38,12% serta kadar nikotin menurun 2,56% dibanding
varietas standar. Galur E memiliki sifat moderat tahan terhadap bakteri
Ralstonia solanacearum dan toleran terhadap nematoda Meloidogyne spp.
Kata kunci : Tembakau,  Nicotiana  tabacum,  Temanggung, galur
harapan, Ralstonia solanacearum, Meloidogyne spp,
Phytophthora nicotianae, lahan lincat, Jawa Timur
ABSTRACT
Temanggung tobacco promising lines with high producti-
vity and resistant to lincat diseased
The main problem in Temanggung tobacco cultivation is low
productivity which is caused by increasing land erosion and invasion of
endemic disease called ‘lincat’. Lincat is a disease caused by a complex
invasion of three pathogens i.e. Meloidogyne spp. (root-knot nematode),
Ralstonia solanacearum (bacteria) and Phytophthora nicotianae (fungus).
Hybridization between variety Sindoro 1 (moderately resistant to R.
solanacearum but susceptible to Meloidogyne spp. and highly susceptible
to P. nicotianae) and virginia tobacco (resistant to these three pathogens)
has resulted in six lines. These lines were planted in three locations for 3
years and were evaluated for their yield, grade index, crop index, and
resistance intensity to these three pathogens, using randomized block
design with 3 replications. Two promising lines were resulted from this
evaluation i.e. (1) Line A, that has productivity of tobacco sliced : 0.880
ton per hectare, grade index: 40.28 crop index: 35.47 and nicotine content:
5.52%. In comparison to standard variety, the productivity, grade index,
and crop index of this line increased of 48.08%, 4.87%, and 53.73%,
respectively, and nicotine content decreased of 15.06%. Moreover, this
line is moderately resistant to R. solanacearum and tolerant to
Meloidogyne spp. (2) Line E, that has productivity of tobacco sliced:
0.869 ton per hectare, grade index: 36.01 crop index: 31.87 and nicotine
content: 6.00%. This line also has increase productivity, and crop index of
46.23% 38.12%, respectively, and has decrease grade index and nicotine
content of 6.25% and 2.56%, respectively compared to standard variety.
This line is moderately resistant to R. solanacearum and tolerant to
Meloidogyne spp.
Key words : Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, Temanggung, promising line,
Ralstonia solanacearum, Meloidogyne spp., Phytophthora
nicotianae, lincat land, East Jav

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v13n2.2007.57-63

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