KARAKTERISTIK FISIOLOGIS Ralstonia solanacearum PENYEBAB PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI NILAM

NASRUN NASRUN, CHRISTANTI CHRISTANTI, TRIWIDODO ARWIYANTO, IKA MARISKA

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penelitian karakteristik Ralstonia solanacearum penyebab
penyakit layu bakteri nilam telah dilakukan di pertanaman nilam petani di
Pasaman Barat Sumatera Barat dan laboratorium serta rumah kaca
Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Kegiatan
lapangan meliputi identifikasi gejala penyakit dan pengambilan sampel
tanaman sakit pada empat kebun nilam terinfeksi penyakit layu bakteri
berdasarkan tingkat serangan tertinggi (di atas 75%) yang dilakukan pada
bulan Januari 2003. Kegiatan laboratorium dan rumah kaca meliputi
isolasi dan pengamatan morfologi bakteri patogen, pengujian hipersensitif,
patogenisitas, sifat-sifat bakteriologi, pigmen fluoresen, antibiotik, biovar
dan ras patologi yang dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari sampai Agustus
2003. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa didapatkan 31 isolat bakteri
patogen yang menunjukkan reaksi hipersensitif pada daun tembakau, dan
20 isolat dari isolat tersebut mampu menginfeksi bibit nilam dengan gejala
layu seperti gejala di lapangan dengan masa inkubasi menunjukkan gejala
14,6 – 39,0 hari setelah inokulasi (HSI). Isolat Ns 31 adalah isolat paling
virulen. Hasil analisis sifat-sifat bakteriologi menyimpulkan isolat bakteri
asal nilam dari Pasaman Barat Sumatera Barat adalah Ralstonia
solanacearum. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian biovar dan kisaran inang maka
isolat tersebut dikelompokkan ke dalam biovar III dan ras satu.
Kata kunci : Nilam, Pogostemon spp., penyakit, bakteri, Ralstonia
solanacearum, Sumatera Barat, D.I. Yogyakarta
ABSTRACT
Physiological characteristics of Ralstonia solanacearum
causing bacterial wilt disease on patchouli plant
The study of characteristics of Ralstonia solanacearum causing
bacterial wilt disease on patchouli plant was conducted in the patchouli
plant field in Pasaman Barat West Sumatera and bacteriological laboratory
and green house of Agricultural Faculty of Gadjah Mada University,
Yogyakarta. The field activity were identification of disease symptom and
collection of infected plant by bacterial disease from the patchouli plant
field that have the height disease intensity (more than 75%) that was
conducted on January 2003. Activity of laboratory and green house were
isolation and assay of bacterial morphology, hypersensitive and
pathogenicity test, bacteriological characteristic, fluorescens pigment,
antibiotic, biotype and ras pathology were conducted from January to
August 2003. Results showed that 31 isolates showed hypersensitive
reaction on tobacco leaf. Twenty isolates infected patchouly plant with
wilt symptoms with incubation period 14.6 – 39.3 days after inoculation.
Ns 31 was the most virulent isolate. Analytic results of bacteriological
characteristic showed that the bacterial isolates of Patchouli plant from
West Pasaman-West Sumatera is Ralstonia solanacearum. Based on
biotype and host range test, this isolates was grouped into biotype III and
ras one.
Key words : Patchouli, Pogostemon spp., disease, bacteria, Ralstonia
solanacearum, West Sumatera, D.I. Yogyakarta

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v13n2.2007.43-48

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