PENGARUH VARIETAS DAN POLA TANAM KAPAS TERHADAP KELIMPAHAN POPULASI PREDATOR HAMA PENGISAP DAUN Amrasca biguttula (ISHIDA)

IGAA. INDRAYANI, NURINDAH NURINDAH, SUJAK SUJAK

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penanaman varietas tahan hama adalah salah satu cara pengendalian
serangga hama pengisap daun, A. biguttula, yang telah diadopsi petani
kapas di Indonesia. Penggunaan varietas tahan hama cukup efektif
menekan serangan hama pengisap ini. Namun demikian, peluang adanya
cara pengendalian alternatif patut dipertimbangkan, misalnya memanfaat-
kan faktor mortalitas biotik A. biguttula, seperti musuh alami. Penelitian
pengaruh varietas dan pola tanam kapas terhadap perkembangan populasi
predator hama pengisap daun A. biguttula telah dilakukan di Kebun
Percobaan Asembagus, Situbondo, dan di laboratorium Entomologi Balai
Penelitian Tanaman Tembakau dan Serat di Malang, mulai Januari sampai
Desember 2005. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh
perbedaan varietas dan pola tanam kapas terhadap perkembangan predator
A. biguttula. Perlakuan terdiri atas dua faktor, yaitu faktor I adalah varietas
kapas dengan tingkat ketahanan terhadap A. biguttula berbeda-beda, yaitu:
(1) TAMCOT SP37 (peka), (2) Kanesia 7 (moderat), dan (3) LRA 5166
(tahan). Faktor II adalah pola tanam kapas, yaitu: (1) monokultur, dan (2)
tumpangsari dengan kedelai. Setiap perlakuan disusun secara faktorial
dengan rancangan petak terbagi (Split Plot) dengan tiga kali ulangan.
Parameter pengamatannya adalah populasi nimfa A. biguttula dan
predator. Di laboratorium dilakukan uji pemangsaan terhadap predator
terpilih dengan cara memberi umpan nimfa A. biguttula untuk mengetahui
kemampuannya memangsa per hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa
perbedaan tingkat ketahanan varietas terhadap A. biguttula mempengaruhi
perkembangan populasi kompleks predator. Lebih banyak predator
ditemukan pada TAMCOT SP37 dan Kanesia 7 dibanding pada LRA
5166. Sedangkan perbedaan pola tanam tidak menyebabkan perbedaan
populasi predator. Kapas monokultur maupun tumpangsari dapat
menyediakan lingkungan ideal bagi perkembangan kompleks predator.
Laba-laba dan Paederus sp. adalah predator yang populasinya lebih
dominan  dibanding  predator lainnya.  Pada uji  pemangsaan di
laboratorium, Paederus sp. mampu memangsa 15-25 nimfa A. biguttula
instar kecil dan 10-20 instar besar, sedangkan laba-laba per hari
memangsa 2-12 nimfa A. biguttula instar kecil dan besar.
Kata kunci: Kapas, Gossypium hirsutum, hama, Amrasca biguttula,
Paederus sp., nimfa, mortalitas biotik, varietas, pola tanam,
Jawa Timur
ABSTRACT
Effect of variety and cropping pattern of cotton on
population density of insect predator Amrasca biguttula
(Ishida)
Planting resistant variety of cotton is one of cultural method for
controlling sucking insect pest, A. biguttula. This method has widely been
applied by cotton farmers in Indonesia. Nevertheless, alternative control
should also be found to obtain better control of this pest, e.g. biological
control by using parasitoids and predators. Study on effect of variety and
cropping pattern of cotton to population density of insect predator of A.
biguttula was carried out at Asembagus Experimental Station and in
Entomology Laboratory of Indonesian Tobacco and Fiber Crops Institute
in Malang from January to December 2005. The objective of study was to
study the effect of variety and cropping pattern of cotton to population
density of insect predators. Treatment consists of two factors. The first
factor was cotton variety based on resistance to A. biguttula, viz.
TAMCOT SP37, Kanesia 7, and LRA 5166 known susceptible,
intermediate, and resistant to A. biguttula, respectively. The second factor
was cropping system with monoculture and intercropping with soybean.
Each treatments was arranged in Split Plot Design with three replications.
Parameter observed in field study were population of A. biguttula and its
predators. While, the laboratory study was to find out the daily prey
ability of selected predator by baiting nymph of A. biguttula.
The result showed that difference resistance of cotton variety
influenced the population density of insect predator. More insect predators
were found on TAMCOT SP37 and Kanesia 7 compared to LRA 5166,
while the density of insect predator was not affected by different cropping
pattern and it was due to the patterns provided better environment for
insect predator development. Spider and Paederus sp. were the dominant
insect predators found in the field because their population higher than
those other predators. Laboratory study showed that Paederus sp. preyed
15-25 younger and 10-20 older instar of nymph per day, while spider ate
2-12 nymphs of both age of A. biguttula per day.
Key words: Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, pest, Amrasca biguttula,
Paederus sp., nymph, biotic mortality, variety, cropping
pattern, East Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v13n1.2007.34-39

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