PENGARUH UMUR PANEN TERHADAP VIABILITAS BENIH SERTA HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN PRODUKSI TERNA SAMBILOTO (Andrographis paniculata Nees

DEVI RUSMIN, MELATI, S MELATI, S, WAHYUNI WAHYUN, SUKARMAN SUKARMAN

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap viabilitas benih
sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Nees) adalah waktu panen.
Berdasarkan permasalahan tersebut kegiatan ini dilakukan dengan tujuan
untuk mengetahui pengaruh umur panen terhadap viabilitas benih serta
hubungannya dengan produksi terna sambiloto. Percobaan dilakukan di
KP. Cimanggu dan Laboratorium, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Obat dan
Aromatik, dari Maret 2005 – Maret 2006. Percobaan disusun dalam
rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) dengan 10 perlakuan stadia umur
panen dan 4 ulangan. Stadia umur panen yang diuji yaitu 18, 21, 22, 23,
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, dan 29 hari setelah antesis (HSA). Variabel yang
diamati yaitu mutu benih (daya berkecambah benih, kecepatan
berkecambah), pertumbuhan tanaman (tinggi tanaman, jumlah cabang),
serta produksi terna (bobot basah tanaman, bobot kering daun, dan bobot
kering batang). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1) Umur panen
benih berpengaruh terhadap daya berkecambah benih dan kecepatan
berkecambah benih sambiloto; daya berkecambah dan kecepatan
berkecambah tertinggi didapatkan pada umur panen benih 22 dan 21 HSA
(67,00 dan 55,00)%; sedangkan daya berkecambah yang terendah
diperoleh pada umur panen 18 HSA (23,50)%, (2) Umur panen benih
berpengaruh terhadap tinggi tanaman dan jumlah cabang pada tanaman
umur 1 bulan. Tinggi tanaman dan jumlah cabang tertinggi berturut-turut
didapatkan pada perlakuan umur panen benih 27 dan 26 HSA (39, 63
dan 36,58 cm serta 16,71 dan 16,61 buah); dan (3) Umur panen benih
berpengaruh terhadap produksi terna (bobot basah tanaman, bobot kering
daun, bobot kering batang) pada umur 3 bulan. Bobot basah tanaman,
bobot kering daun, serta bobot kering batang tertinggi didapatkan pada
perlakuan umur panen benih 27 HSA (291,25, 28, 27 dan 28,86)g. Bobot
basah tanaman, bobot kering daun, serta bobot kering batang terendah
didapatkan pada perlakuan 18 HSA (217,09, 22,10 dan 20,24)g. Umur
panen benih tidak berpengaruh terhadap jumlah cabang pada umur 3
bulan.
Kata kunci : Sambiloto, Andrographis paniculata Nees, umur panen,
viabilitas, produksi, Jawa Barat
ABSTRACT
The influence of harvesting time on the seed viability and
the  relationship  with  herb  yield  of  king  bitter
(Andrographis paniculata Nees)
One of the main factors influencing the viability of king bitter
(Andrographis paniculata Nees) is appropriate harvesting time. Based on
this problem a research was conducted to study the relationship between
seed maturity and seed viability, and herb yield of king bitter. The research
was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station and in the laboratory of
Indonesian Medicinal and Aromatic Crops Research Institute (IMACRI)
from March 2005 to March 2006. The experiment was arranged in a
randomized block design with 10 seed maturity stages and 4 replications.
Maturity seed tested was 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 29 days
after anthesis. The observations were made on seed quality (percentage of
seed germination, and rate of seed germination), plant growth (plant
height, number of branches) and herb yield (fresh herb weight, leaf dry
weight, and stem dry weight). The results of experiment indicated that (1)
seed maturity affected seed germination, and rate of seed germination of
king bitter; the highest seed germination and germination rate were
achieved by seeds harvested at 21 and 22 days after anthesis, (2) stage of
seed harvesting affected on the plant height and number of branches at 1
month after planting. The highest plant height and number of branches
were found on the treatments of seeds harvested at 26 and 27 days after
anthesis, they were 39.63 and 36.58 cm and 16.71 and 16.61; (3) seed
maturity also affected herb production, such as wet weight of plants, dry
weight of leaf and dry weight of steam at 3 moths after planting. Wet
weight of plant, dry weight of leaf and dry weight of stem were achieved
at the treatments of seeds harvested at 27 days after anthesis, they were
291.25, 28.27 and 28.86 g. The lowest of wet of plant weight, dry weight
of leaf and dry weight of stem were found on the seeds harvested at 18
days after anthesis. They were 217.09, 22.10 and 20.24 g. Moreover, the
stage of harvesting did not influence the number of branches at 3 months
after planting.
Key words: King bitter, Andrographis paniculata Nees, seed maturity,
viability, production, West Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v13n1.2007.21-27

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