BIOSINTESIS MENTHOL PADA BERBAGAI PERIODE PENCAHAYAAN TANAMAN MENTHA (Mentha piperita L.)

ROSIHAN ROSMAN

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji mekanisme sintesis menthol
pada berbagai periode pencahayaan tanaman M. piperita L. Penelitian
dilakukan di Instalasi Penelitian Balai Penelitian Tanaman Obat dan
Aromatik, Lembang, Jawa Barat, dari bulan Januari 2000 hingga Juli 2000.
Penelitian dilakukan tiga tahap. Tahap pertama membuat variasi
lingkungan cahaya, tahap kedua penyulingan dan analisis komponen
minyak dengan kromatografi gas spektrometer massa dan tahap ketiga
merunut lintasan biosintesis menthol. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan
acak kelompok 5 perlakuan, yaitu L 0 (panjang hari normal sebagai
kontrol), L 1 (pemutusan periode gelap 1 jam, pukul 21.00-22.00 mulai
umur 30 hari), L 2  (pemutusan periode gelap 1 jam, pukul 21.00-22.00
mulai umur 60 hari), L 3 (penambahan cahaya 4 jam, pukul 18.00-22.00
mulai umur 30 hari), dan L 4 (penambahan cahaya 4 jam, pukul 18.00-
22.00 mulai umur 60 hari). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa
perubahan lingkungan mempengaruhi mekanisme sintesis menthol di
dalam tanaman Mentha piperita L. Perubahan lingkungan mengubah
lintasan menthol yang selanjutnya mengubah komponen minyak dan mutu
menthol. Tingginya kadar menthol dan rendahnya menthofuran pada
penambahan cahaya 4 jam terjadi melalui penghambatan pembentukan
senyawa menthofuran dengan mereduksi pulegon menjadi menthol,
sehingga menthol meningkat, sedangkan pada perlakuan kontrol terjadi
oksidasi pulegon ke menthofuran sehingga menthol rendah. Penambahan
cahaya 4 jam mulai umur 30 hari setelah tanam menghasilkan minyak
dengan kadar menthol paling tinggi yaitu 54,89% dan menthofuran paling
rendah yaitu 7,83%.
Kata kunci :  Mentha, Mentha piperita L., periode pencahayaan, hasil,
komposisi minyak, Jawa Barat
ABSTRACT
The effect of photoperiod on menthol sysnthesis of
Mentha piperita L.
Research on the effect of photoperiod on menthol synthesis of
Mentha piperita L, was carried out at the Experimental Garden of Institute
Reseach for Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, Lembang, West Java, from
January until July, 2000. The objective is to study the machanism of
menthol synthesis in relation with the manipulation of light periode, three
steps were taken: The first step was manipulation of environment using TL
lamps (two experiments), the second step was distillation and analisis of
peppermint oil from their products with gas chromatography and mass
spectrometry, and the third step was tracing the pathway on menthol
biosynthesis. At the first experiment, 5 treatments were given i.e. (1)
control or normal light period, (2) four hours light supplement at the age of
30 days and 60 days after planting, and (3) one hour interruption of dark
period at the age of 30 days and 60 days. The result showed that the effect
of light period manipulation can change the pathway of menthol
biosynthesis and oil component and finally the quality of menthol. Four
hours light supplement at the age of 30 days after planting could enhance
the menthol content and reduce menthofuran by blocking the reaction from
pulegone to menthofuran, so the pulegone was reduced into menthon and
menthol. Four hours light supplement at 30 days after planting showed the
highest menthol content (54.89%) and the lowest menthofuran (7.83%).
Control treatment (normal light period) showed the lowest menthol
content, due to no reduction of pulegone into menthon, but pulegone was
oxidized into menthofuran. Without additional light the menthol content
decreased and the menthofuran content increased.
Key words : Mentha, Mentha piperita L., oil composition, photoperiod,
yield, West Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v13n1.2007.8-13

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