PENGARUH METODE APLIKASI BAKTERI ENDOFIT TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN NEMATODA PELUKA AKAR (Pratylenchus brachyurus ) PADA TANAMAN NILAM

RITA HARNI, IKA MUSTIKA, SUPRAMANA SUPRAMANA, ABDUL MUNIF

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Bakteri endofit adalah salah satu agen antagonis yang akhir-akhir
ini banyak digunakan sebagai pengendalian biologi nematoda parasit
tanaman. Pada tanaman nilam nematoda Pratylenchus brachyurus merupa-
kan salah satu faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi produktivitas. Penelitian
ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui metode aplikasi bakteri endofit yang
effisien untuk menekan nematoda P. brachyurus pada tanaman nilam.
Penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dan rumah kaca Balai Penelitian
Tanaman Rempah dan Obat dan Laboratorium Nematologi Departemen
Proteksi Tanaman IPB, dari Januari sampai dengan Juli 2005. Penelitian
menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 2 faktor. Faktor pertama
adalah metode aplikasi (siram dan rendam), faktor kedua adalah jenis
isolat (NJ2, NJ25, NJ41, NJ46, NJ57, NA22, ERB21, ES32, E26). Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi nematoda dipengaruhi oleh
adanya interaksi antara metode aplikasi dan isolat bakteri yang digunakan,
sedangkan berat tajuk, panjang akar dan tinggi tanaman hanya dipengaruhi
oleh jenis bakteri. Isolat Bacillus NA22, Bacillus NJ46 dan Bacillus NJ2
dengan metode perendaman akar mempunyai kemampuan yang tinggi
dalam menekan populasi P. brachyurus yaitu berturut-turut sebesar 75%,
63% dan 60%. Semua isolat yang digunakan dapat meningkatkan berat
tajuk, panjang akar dan tinggi tanaman.
Kata kunci: Nilam, Pogostemon cablin, penyakit tanaman, pengendalian
biologi, bakteri endofit, nematoda, Pratylenchus brachyurus,
Jawa Barat
ABSTRACT
Effect of application method of endophytic bacteria on
root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus brachyurus) on
patchouli
Endophytic bacteria is one of the important agents recently used
for controlling plant parasitic nematodes. P. brachyurus is one of the
factors affecting the productivity of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.)
in Indonesia. The objectives of the research were to find out an efficient
application method of endophytic bacteria to reduce P. brachyurus on
patchouli. The research was conducted in the Nematology Laboratory,
Department of Plant Protection, Bogor Agricultural University and in the
Laboratory and Greenhouse of Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops
Research Institute, from January to July 2005. The research used
randomized complete design with two factors, the first factor was
application method (drencing and deeping), the second factor was bacteria
isolates (NJ2, NJ25, NJ41, NJ46, NJ57, NA22, ERB21, ES32, E26). The
results showed that the population of nematode was affected by the
interaction between bacterial isolates and application method. While shoot
weight, root length and plant height were affected by bacterial isolates.
Bacillus NA22, Bacillus NJ46 and Bacillus NJ2 applicated by deeping the
root into bacterial suspension significantly gave good result in reducing P.
brachyurus, i.e. 75%, 63% and 60%. All bacterial isolates increased shoot
weight, root length.
Key words: Patchouli, Pogostemon cablin, plant disease, biological
control, endophytic bacteria, nematode, Pratylenchus
brachyurus, West Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v12n4.2006.161-165

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