PERANAN Synnematium sp. DALAM PENGENDALIAN Sanurus indecora JACOBI (HOMOPTERA: FLATIDAE)

TRI L. MARDININGSIH, ELNA KARMAWATI, TRI EKO WAHYONO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Sanurus indecora merupakan salah satu hama utama yang
menyerang tanaman jambu mete di Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat. Di
Lombok Timur, hama ini diserang oleh cendawan Synnematium sp.
Berdasarkan hal tersebut perlu penelitian untuk mengetahui apakah
cendawan tersebut dapat digunakan untuk mengendalikan S. indecora.
Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui peranan Synnematium sp.
dalam pengendalian S. indecora dilakukan di Desa Pohgading, Kecamatan
Pringgabaya dan di Desa Wanasaba, Kecamatan Wanasaba, Kabupaten
Lombok Timur dari bulan Juni sampai September 2004. Penelitian terdiri
atas dua kegiatan yaitu di tingkat pot (bibit) dan lapang. Penelitian di
tingkat pot terdiri atas tiga kegiatan yaitu aplikasi cendawan terhadap telur,
nimfa, imago pada bibit jambu mete (10 telur/ serangga/ bibit). Rancangan
yang digunakan ialah acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan diulang
enam kali. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap jumlah telur atau serangga
yang mati karena terserang Synnematium sp. mulai satu sampai tujuh hari
setelah perlakuan. Penelitian lapang menggunakan rancangan acak
kelompok yang disusun secara faktorial dengan dua macam faktor yaitu
pola tanam dan konsentrasi Synnematium sp. Parameter yang diamati
adalah populasi S. indecora, tingkat serangan, jumlah bunga hermaprodit
sebelum perlakuan dan jumlah buah yang berkembang. Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa cendawan Synnematium sp. yang diaplikasikan pada
nimfa S. indecora dan bibit menyebabkan kematian serangga tertinggi
mencapai 98,33%. Kematian serangga pada ketiga macam konsentrasi
Synnematium sp. baik pada telur, nimfa dan imago tidak berbeda nyata.
Dalam penelitian ini konsentrasi terkecil yaitu 20 g/l atau setara dengan
konsentrasi spora 1,64 x 10 8  sudah efektif menyebabkan kematian S.
indecora. Penurunan populasi S. indecora oleh Synnematium sp. efektif
dengan konsentrasi 20 g/l sebesar 24,14% dibandingkan dengan kontrol.
Tingkat serangan berkorelasi positif dengan populasi serangga.
Kata kunci: Jambu mete, Anacardium occidentale L., hama, Sanurus
indecora, pengendalian hayati, Synnematium sp. Nusa
Tenggara Barat
ABSTRACT
The role of Synnematium sp. in controling Sanurus
indecora JACOBI (Homoptera : Flatidae)
Sanurus indecora is one of major pests attacking cashew plants in
West Nusa Tenggara Province. In East Lombok, this insect pest was
attacked by fungi of Synnematium sp. Based on that, the experiment was
conducted to find out whether the fungi could be used to control S.
indecora or not. The objective of the experiment was to examine the role
of Synnematium sp. in the controlling S. indecora. It was carried out in
Pohgading, Pringgabaya and Wanasaba, District of East Lombok from
June to September 2004. The experiment consisted of two activities
namely polybag stage and field activities. Polybag stage activities
consisted of three activities namely application of Synnematium sp. on
eggs, nymphs, adults on seedling (10 eggs/insect/seedling). The
experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four
treatments and six replications. Observation was conducted on the number
of dead eggs, nymphs and adults attacked by Synnematium sp. from one to
seven days after treatment. While field activities used a randomized block
design arranged in a factorial with two factors i. e. plant pattern and
concentration of Synnematium sp. Parameters observed were population of
S. indecora, the degree of attack, the number of hermaphrodite flowers
before application and the number of developed fruits. Research results
showed that Synnematium sp. sprayed to nymphs of S. indecora and
seedling caused the highest mortality of S. indecora that reached 98.33%.
Mortality of S. indecora on the three concentrations either on eggs,
nymphs and direct application to adults was not significantly different. In
this experiment, the smallest concentration i.e. 20 g/l or equivalent with
concentration of spore 1.64 x 10 8  was effective to cause the death of S.
indecora. The decrease of S. indecora population by Synnematium sp. was
effective with concentration of 20g/l as many as 24,14% compared with
control. The degree of attack was positively correlated with population of
S. indecora.
Key words: Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L., pest , Sanurus indecora,
biological control, Synnematium sp. Nusa Tenggara Barat

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v12n3.2006.103-108

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