PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, PRODUKSI DAN MUTU SIMPLISIA PURWOCENG (Pimpinella pruatjan Molkenb)

MONO RAHARDJO, ROSITA SMD, IRENG DARWATI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Purwoceng (Pimpinella pruatjan Molkenb.) adalah tanaman obat
asli Indonesia yang statusnya langka, dan teknologi budidayanya belum
banyak diketahui. Penelitian pengaruh pemupukan terhadap produksi dan
mutu simplisia purwoceng telah dilakukan tahun 2004-2005 di Desa
Sikunang, Dieng, Jawa Tengah. Perlakuan pemupukannya adalah: (1)
kontrol (tidak dipupuk); (2) 9,6 kg pupuk kandang (pk); (3) 96 g urea + 48
g SP36 + 72 g KCl; (4) 9,6 kg pk + 96 g urea + 48 g SP36 + 72 g KCl; (5)
9,6 kg pk + 96 g urea + 48 g SP36; (6) 9,6 kg pk + 96 g urea + 72 g KCl;
(7) 9,6 kg pk + 48 g SP36 + 72 g KCl. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan
acak kelompok diulang 4 kali dengan ukuran petak 2,4 m 2 . Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pupuk lengkap 9,6 kg pk + 96 g urea + 48
g SP36 + 72 g KCl/petak dan pemupukan 96 g urea + 48 g SP36 + 72 g
KCl/petak dapat meningkatkan produksi dan mutu simplisia purwoceng.
Dibandingkan dengan tanaman yang tidak dipupuk, produksi simplisia
meningkat 40%, kadar stigmasterol di akar meningkat 11 – 14 kali. Akar
tanaman purwoceng yang tidak dipupuk tidak mengandung sitosterol,
tetapi setelah dipupuk mengandung sitosterol sebanyak 16,17 – 17,11 ppm.
Tajuk tanaman tidak mengandung bergapten apabila tidak dipupuk, tetapi
setelah dipupuk mengandung bergapten 4,92 – 5,56 ppm. Produksi dan
mutu simplisia perlakuan 96 g urea + 48 g SP36 + 72 g KCl/petak tidak
berbeda nyata dibandingkan dengan perlakuan 9,6 kg pk + 96 g urea + 48
g SP36 + 72 g KCl/petak. Ini diduga karena kandungan bahan organik
tanah cukup tinggi, sehingga penambahan 96 kg/petak pupuk kandang
tidak berpengaruh nyata. Untuk menghasilkan simplisia kering purwoceng
secara optimal 8,41 g/tanaman (6,98 kwt/ha) dan bermutu tinggi,
diperlukan serapan hara N, P dan K pada jaringan tanaman masing-masing
berturut-turut sebanyak 283 mg N; 55 mg P; dan 356 mg K/tanaman atau
setara dengan 23,50 kg N; 6,30 kg P; dan 38,90 kg K/ha.
Kata kunci: Purwoceng, Pimpinella pruatjan Molkenb, pemupukan,
pertumbuhan, produksi, mutu, Jawa Tengah
ABSTRACT
Effect of fertilizer application on production and quality
of Pimpinella pruatjan Molkenb
Purwoceng (Pimpinella pruatjan Molkenb) is an Indonesian
indigenous medicinal plant. Purwoceng is classified as an endangered
species, and its cultivation technology has not been devoleped. The
objective of the research was to find out the effect of fertilizer application
on the production and quality of purwoceng simplisia. The research was
conducted in Sikunang, Dieng, Wonosobo, Central Java from 2004 until
2005. The treatments of fertilizer application on 2.4 m 2  were (1) control
(without fertilizer); (2) 9.6 kg dung manure (dm); (3) 96 g urea + 48 g
SP36 + 72 g KCl; (4) 9.6 kg pk + 96 g urea + 48 g SP36 + 72 g KCl; (5)
9.6 kg pk + 96 g urea + 48 g SP36; (6) 96 kg pk + 9.6 g urea + 72 g KCl;
(7) 9.6 kg pk + 48 g SP36 + 72 g KCl. The experiment was designed in
randomized block designed with four replications. The result of the
research showed that the treatments of 9.6 kg dm + 96 g urea + 48 g SP36
+ 72 g KCl/2.4 m 2 and 96 g urea + 48 g SP36 + 72 g KCl/2.4 m 2 increased
the simplisia production and quality compared with control. The simplisia
production increased up to 40% and the stigma sterol content in the roots
increased up to 11 – 14 times. The content of sitosterol in the plants with
fertilizer application was 6.7 – 17.11 ppm but in the plants without
fertilizer application was zero. The content of bergapten in shoot part of
plant with fertilizer application was 4.92 – 5.56 ppm, but in the shoot part
without fertilizer application was zeros. The production and quality of
simplisia with the fertilizer application of 96 g urea + 48 g SP36 + 72 g
KCl/2.4 m 2 were not significantly different from those with fertilizer
application of 9.6 kg pk + 96 g urea + 48 g SP36 + 72 gKCl/2.4 m 2 . It
happened probably because the organic soil content was high, so that the
application of 40 ton/ha of dung manure did not give any effect.
Furthermore, to increase the optimum production of purwoceng simplisia
(6.98 kwt/ha) with high quality it needs 283 mg N, 55 mg P dan 356 mg
K/plant or 23.50 kg N, 6.30 kg P, and 38.90 K/ha.
Key words : Purwoceng,  Pimpinella  pruatjan  Molkenb,  fertilizer
application, growth, production, quality, Central Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v12n2.2006.73-79

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