PENGARUH MACAM SETEK DAN MEDIA TUMBUH TERHADAP VIGOR BIBIT KEMUKUS (Piper cubeba LINN)

ENDJO DJAUHARIYA, MONO RAHARDJO, AGUS SUDIMAN, SUKARMAN SUKARMAN

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Tanaman kemukus (Piper cubeba LINN.) sudah dikenal sejak
jaman dahulu sebagai tanaman obat, rempah, pengharum dan penyedap
masakan. Di Jawa Tengah perbanyakan tanaman kemukus pada umumnya
dilakukan melalui setek panjang yang terdiri dari 8 - 14 ruas. Perbanyakan
dengan cara demikian dianggap tidak ekonomis, oleh karena itu perlu
dicari cara perbanyakan yang efisien dan efektif. Percobaan pengaruh
macam setek dan komposisi media tumbuh terhadap daya tumbuh dan
vigor bibit dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mendapatkan teknologi
perbanyakan kemukus. Percobaan dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan
Cimanggu, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat Bogor dari bulan
September sampai dengan Desember 2003. Percobaan menggunakan
rancangan acak kelompok yang disusun secara faktorial dengan 2 faktor
dan 3 ulangan. Sebagai faktor pertama adalah 3 macam setek pendek 3
ruas yaitu : (1) setek bertapak, (2) setek sulur panjat dan (3) setek cabang
buah. Faktor kedua adalah tiga perlakuan komposisi media tumbuh terdiri
dari (tanah + pupuk kandang + pasir) dengan perbandingan: (a) 1:1:1, (b)
2:1:1, dan (c) 3:1:1. Media dimasukkan ke dalam polibag ukuran 10 x 12
cm. Variabel yang diamati meliputi persentase daya tumbuh, panjang
tunas, jumlah daun, bobot kering tunas, jumlah akar, panjang akar dan
bobot kering akar. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa vigor bibit yang
diekspresikan oleh persentase daya tumbuh, pertumbuhan tunas dan akar
tidak nyata dipengaruhi oleh interaksi jenis setek dan komposisi media
tumbuh. Jenis setek berpangaruh nyata terhadap semua variabel yang
diamati, kecuali terhadap jumlah daun. Jenis setek yang berasal dari setek
bertapak dan sulur panjat manghasilkan persentase daya tumbuh 68,40%
dan 62,00%, panjang tunas 2,87 cm dan 4,70 cm, bobot kering tunas 0,13
g dan 0,14 g, jumlah akar 5,95 dan 5,76 dan bobot kering akar 0,05 g dan
0.05 g, lebih baik dibandingkan setek cabang buah. Jenis media tumbuh
hanya berpengaruh nyata terhadap bobot kering tunas tapi tidak
berpengruh nyata terhadap variabel lainnya. Bobot kering tunas yang
terbaik didapat pada komposisi media tumbuh tanah + pupuk kandang +
pasir (1 : 1 : 1) (0,14 g) dan terendah pada komposisi media tumbuh tanah
+ pupuk kandang + pasir (3 : 1 : 1) (0.11 g).
Kata kunci : Kemukus, Piper cubeba LINN, bahan tanaman, macam
setek, media tumbuh, daya tumbuh, Jawa Barat
ABSTRACT
Effect of cutting materials and growth media on the
growth of cubeba cuttings
In Indonesia, cubeba pepper plant (Piper cubeba LINN) has been
known for years as a traditional medicine, spice, fragrant, and seasonings.
In Central of Java, it is usually propagated by using eight or fourteen node
cuttings which is not an economical practice. The research on cutting
materials and growth media was conducted in Cimanggu Experimental
Garden of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute
from September to December 2003. The objective of the research was to
find out an appropriate propagation technology of cubeba. The research
used two factors and three replications which was arranged in a
randomized completely block design. The first factor was three kinds of
cutting nodes, i.e. (1) attached-rooted cuttings (2) vegetative branch and
(3) generative branch. The second factor was three kinds of media
compositions of soil, dung manure and sand (1) 1:1:1, (2) 2:1:1 and (3)
3:1:1. Observations were conducted on the percentage of budding, length
of bud, number of leaves, number of roots, length of root, dry weight of
the roots, and the shoot. The results of the research indicated that the vigor
of seedlings which was expressed by germination percentage, growth of
seedlings, and growth of root, did not significantly affected by the
interaction between kinds of cuttings and media composition. However,
the kinds of cuttings significantly affected all variables, except the number
of leaves. Cubeba seedlings originated from attached-rooted cuttings and
vegetative branch had higher germination percentage i.e. 68.40% and
62.00%, length of shoot 2.87 cm and 4.70 cm, dry weight of shoot 0.13 g
and 0.14 g, number of roots 5.95 and 5.76, length of root 7.32 cm and 7.27
cm, and dry weight of root 0.05 g and 0.05 g, compared to the cubeba
seedlings originated from generative branch. Media composition was
significantly effected only on dry weight of shoots. The highest dry weight
of shoot was resulted from composition of soil, dung manure and sand
1:1;1 (0.14 g), while the lowest was found on ratio media composition of
soil, dung manure and sand 3:1:1 (0.11g).
Key words : Cubeba, Piper cubeba LINN, plant material, cutting
materials, growth media, growth, West Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v12n2.2006.67-72

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