PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN PENDAPATAN USAHATANI KAPAS MELALUI PENERAPAN TEKNOLOGI PENGENDALIAN HAMA TERPADU (PHT)

SUPRIADI TIRTOSUPROBO, JOKO HARTONO HARTONO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Penelitian dilakukan di Desa Pongkah, Kecamatan Tellusiatinge,
Kabupaten Bone, Sulawesi Selatan, bulan April sampai dengan Nopember
2001. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk (a) mengetahui besarnya biaya
produksi dan pendapatan usahatani kapas antara petani kapas binaan dan
petani kapas non binaan, (b) mengetahui tingkat adopsi teknologi pada
usahatani kapas binaan, dan (c) mengetahui kendala yang dihadapi dalam
proses adopsi teknologi PHT yang dianjurkan. Lokasi penelitian dipilih
secara sengaja (purposive) dengan pertimbangan bahwa Kabupaten Bone
merupakan salah satu sentra produksi kapas di Sulawesi Selatan. Dua
perlakuan yang dibandingkan terdiri dari petani kapas peserta PHT sebagai
petani kapas binaan ditentukan secara sengaja sebanyak 87 petani pada
hamparan lahan kering seluas 51 ha. Sebagai pembanding diambil secara
acak sederhana (simple random sampling) sebanyak 60 petani kapas non
binaan dengan luas lahan 33 ha. Komponen teknologi yang dianjurkan
pada petani PHT adalah : (a) benih kapas tanpa kabu-kabu, (b) tanam
kapas varietas toleran wereng (Kanesia 7), (c) tanam tepat waktu, (d)
penanaman jagung sebagai perangkap hama, (e) penggunaan serasah, (f)
konservasi gulma penarik parasitoid, dan (g) penyemprotan berdasar hasil
panduan. Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi : (1) populasi arthropoda
perusak dan berguna, (2) biaya saprodi dan tenaga kerja, (3) hasil kapas
berbiji, (4) tingkat adopsi teknologi, (5) kendala penerapan teknologi PHT.
Data di analisis menggunakan model analisis diskriptif dan usahatani
enterprise. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi predator pada
serasah di areal kapas binaan mencapai 178,57 ekor per 0,35m 3 onggokan
serasah, dan populasi pada tanaman kapas 11,62 ekor per 25 tanaman
kapas. Produksi kapas berbiji yang diperoleh petani binaan dan petani non
binaan masing-masing sebesar 1435 kg/ha dan 588 kg/ha, dengan
pendapatan atas biaya tunai masing-masing sebesar Rp. 2.330.648 dan Rp.
279.273. Tingkat adopsi petani dalam penerapan teknologi PHT baru
mencapai 70%. Secara umum kendala yang dihadapi adalah (1) petani
masih belum menguasai teknologi bertanam kapas, termasuk teknologi
PHT karena minimnya ketersediaan modal, (2) benih yang ditanam petani
daya tumbuhnya hanya 20-40%, dan (3) petani menghendaki harga kapas
tinggi.
Kata kunci : Kapas, Gossypium hirsutum, adopsi teknologi, pendapatan
ABSTRACT
Increasing production and farmer’s income through
integrated pest management application
This research was conducted in Pongkah, Tellusiatinge District,
Bone, South Sulawesi from April to November 2001. The aims of this
research were to (a) determine the production cost and income from cotton
cultivation between the trained cotton farmer and non-trained cotton
farmer, and (b) determine the level of technology adoption among the
trained cotton farmers and (c) investigate constraints in adopting the
technology of integrated pest management (IPM) which had been
suggested for the implementation by the farmers. The location was
purposively selected based on the consideration that the Bone regency was
one of the main area of cotton cultivation in the South Sulawesi. Two
groups were compared in this study. These groups were 87 trained farmers
who cultivated 51 hectares of dry field and 60 non-trained farmers, who
cultivated 33 hectares of dry field. The technology implemented by the
trained farmers were (a) the use of delinted seed , (b) the use of resistant
cotton variety to Sundapteryx biguttula (Kanesia 7), (c) timely planting,
(d) planting corn to trap the pest, (e) using mulch (corn stalk waste), (f)
conservation of weeds to attracts parasitoid, and (g) insecticide spraying
based on scouting system. The data gathered in this study included: (1)
population of arthropods, both pest and non-pest, (2) the cost of production
and labor, (3) the yield of cotton, (4) the level of technology adoption, and
(5) the constraints in adopting PHT technology. The data were analyzed
using descriptive analysis and farming enterprise. The results of the
analysis showed that the population of predators on the mulch in the field
cultivated by trained farmers was 178.57insects 0.35 m 3 and in non-trained
farmer field was 11.62 insects/25 plants. The yields of cotton between
trained and non-trained farmers was 1435 kg/ha and 55 kg/ha, resulting in
cash income of Rp. 2,330,648.00 and Rp. 279,273.00. The level of
technology adoption for trained farmers was 70 percent and the constraints
were: (1) lack of knowledge in applying PHT technology due to
insufficient capital, (2) germination rate of seeds planted by non-trained
farmers was only 20-40 percent, (3) the low price of cotton.
Key words: Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, technology adoption, income

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v12n2.2006.52-57

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.




P-ISSN: 0853-8212
E-ISSN: 2528-6870

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

(Indonesian Center for Estate Crops Research and Development)

Jln. Tentara Pelajar No 1, Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu

Bogor 16111 Indonesia

Phone: +62251-8313083

Fax: +62251-8336194

Email: littri_puslitbangbun@yahoo.co.id



View My Stats