EFISIENSI PENGENDALIAN PENGGEREK BUAH KAPAS Helicoverpa armigera HÜBNER DENGAN SERBUK BIJI MIMBA DAN NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS

I G.A.A. INDRAYANI, DWI WINARNO, TEGER BASUKI BASUKI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Pengendalian hama non-kimiawi semakin meningkat sehingga
mengurangi penggunaan insektisida kimia. Alternatif pengendalian hama
menggunakan pestisida botani dan agensia mikrobia cukup efektif
mengendalikan penggerek buah kapas H. armigera. Penelitian efisiensi
pengendalian penggerek buah kapas H. armigera dengan SBM dan NPV
dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Tembakau dan
Serat di Asembagus, Situbondo, Jawa Timur mulai Januari hingga
Desember 2003. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat efisiensi
pengendalian penggerek buah kapas H. armigera terutama dengan
kombinasi SBM dan NPV. Perlakuan yang digunakan adalah: (1)
SBM(LC 25 )+NPV(LC 50 ), (2) SBM(LC 50 )+NPV(LC 50 ), (3) SBM (dosis
rekomendasi), (4) NPV (dosis rekomendasi), (5) betasiflutrin (dosis
rekomendasi), dan (6) kontrol (tanpa perlakuan). Setiap perlakuan disusun
dalam rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) dengan tiga ulangan. Parameter
yang diamati meliputi populasi ulat H. armigera dan kompleks
predatornya, frekuensi penyemprotan masing-masing perlakuan, kerusakan
kuncup bunga dan buah kapas, biaya pengendalian hama, pendapatan,
marginal rate of return (MRR), dan hasil kapas serta kacang hijau. Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengendalian H. armigera dengan
kombinasi perlakuan SBM(LC 50 )+NPV(LC 50 ) lebih efisien menurunkan
biaya pengendalian hama hingga 63,4% dan meningkatkan pendapatan
sebesar 32,7% dibanding insektisida kimia betasiflutrin, dengan nilai MRR
4,66 dan 4,28 masing-masing atas kontrol dan insektisida kimia.
Kata kunci: Kapas, Gossypium hirsutum, hama, penggerek buah,
Helicoverpa armigera, SBM, NPV, pengendalian hama,
marginal rate of return, Jawa Timur
ABSTRACT
Efficiency in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Hübner control
using neem seed powder and nuclear polyhedrosis virus
Insect pest biological control potentially decreases the use of
chemical insecticides. The alternative control method chosen was
combination of botanical and microbial agents that showed higher
effectiveness against H. armigera. This control method might also
potential to minimize the use of chemical pesticide on cotton. Study on
efficiency of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Hübner control using
neem seed powder (NSP) and nuclear polyhedrosis virus was conducted at
Asembagus Experimental Station of Indonesian Tobacco and Fiber Crops
Research Institute, Situbondo, East Java, from January to December 2003.
The objective of this study was to find out the efficiency level of cotton
bollworm control using combination of neem seed powder (NSP) and
nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). The treatments were : (1) NSP(LC 25 ) +
NPV(LC 50 ), (2) NSP(LC 50 ) + NPV(LC 50 ), (3) NSP (recommended dose),
(4) NPV (recommended dose), (5) betacyfluthrin (recommended dose),
and (6) control (untreated). The treatments were arranged in a randomized
block design with three replications. Parameters observed were population
of H. armigera larvae and its complex predators, frequency of spraying,
square and boll damage, cost of control, net income, marginal rate of
return, and yield of seed cotton and mungbean. The research results
showed that the combination of NSP(LC 50 )+NPV(LC 50 ) effectively
reduced the total cost of insect control by 63.4% and increased the increase
32.7% compared to betacyfluthrin. The combination also showed the
highest marginal rate of return of 4.66 and 4.28 based on control and
betacyfluthrin, respectively.
Key words: Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, insect, cotton bollworm,
Helicoverpa armigera, NSP, NPV, insect control, marginal
rate of return, East Java

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v12n2.2006.45-51

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