PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, PRODUKSI, DAN MUTU TANAMAN TIMI (Thymus vulgaris L.)

RAHARDJO RAHARDJO, I. DARWATI, H. NURHAYATI

Abstract


ABSTRAK

 

Tanaman   timi   banyak   dibudidayakan   di   Indonesia   karena
bermanfaat  untuk  kesehatan.  Kebutuhan  hara  N,  P,  dan  K  penting
diketahui  untuk  mendukung  budidayanya.  Penelitian  bertujuan  untuk
mengetahui respon pemupukan terhadap pertumbuhan, produksi, mutu
simplisia, dan serapan hara tanaman timi. Penelitian dilaksanakan di KP.
Manoko  (1200  m  dpl)  pada  bulan  Januari  sampai  Desember 2013.
Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan empat ulangan.
Perlakuan pemupukan: (1) kontrol (tanpa pupuk); (2) 20 ton/ha pupuk
kandang; (3) 20 ton/ha pupuk kandang + urea, SP36, dan KCl masing-
masing 50 kg/ha; (4) 20 ton/ha pupuk kandang + urea, SP36, dan KCl
masing-masing 75 kg/ha; (5) 20 ton/ha pupuk kandang + urea, SP36, dan
KCl masing-masing 100 kg/ha; (6) 20 ton/ha pupuk kandang + urea, SP36,
dan KCl masing-masing 125 kg/ha; (7) 20 ton/ha pupuk kandang + urea,
SP36, dan KCl masing-masing 150 kg/ha; dan (8) Urea, SP36, dan KCl
masing-masing 150 kg/ha. Peubah yang diamati: tinggi, bobot segar dan
kering, produksi herba kering, mutu simplisia, serta kadar hara N, P, dan K
tanaman. Produksi herba tertinggi (3,93 ton/ha) diperoleh pada perlakuan
urea, SP36, dan KCl masing-masing 150 kg/ha. Peningkatan SP36 menjadi
150 kg/ha yang diikuti oleh urea dan KCl masing-masing 150 kg/ha tanpa
pupuk kandang, mampu meningkatkan herba kering timi 44-88%. Kadar
thymol  tertinggi (70,90%)  dicapai  pada  perlakuan 20  ton/ha  pupuk
kandang +  urea,  SP36,  dan  KCl  masing-masing 150  kg/ha,  namun
menghasilkan kadar minyak atsiri terendah (0,30%). Sebaliknya, kadar
thymol terendah (43,99%) dicapai pada perlakuan tanpa pupuk, tetapi
memiliki kadar minyak atsiri tertinggi (0,92%).

 

Kata kunci:  Thymus  vulgaris  L.,  pemupukan,  pertumbuhan,  produksi,
            kualitas

 

The Effect of Fertilizer on Growth, Yield, and Quality of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.)

 


ABSTRACT

 

 

 

Thyme has been cultivating in Indonesia because of  its benefits for
health. Thyme nutrients requirement is important to support its cultivation.
This study is aimed to evaluate thyme responses to fertilizer. The research
was  conducted  at  Manoko  Experimental  Garden (1200  m  asl)  from
January to December 2013, arranged in randomized block design with four
replications. Fertilization treatments: (1) control (no fertilizer); (2) 20
tonnes/kg manure; (3) 20 tonnes/ha manure + 50 kg/ha of each urea, SP36,
and KCl; (4) 20 tonnes/kg manure + 75 kg/ha of each urea, SP36, and KCl;

 

(5) 20 tonnes/kg manure + 100 kg/ha of each urea, SP36, and KCl; (6) 20
tonnes/kg manure + 125 kg/ha of each urea, SP36, and KCl; (7) 20
tonnes/kg manure + 150 kg/ha of each urea, SP36, and KCl; and (8) 150
kg/ha of each urea, SP36, and KCl. Parameters observed: plant height,
fresh and dry weight per plant, yield of dry herb, simplicia quality, and N,
P, and K contents. Treatment 150 kg/ha of each urea, SP36, and KCl was
produced the highest yield (3.93 tonnes/ha). The increase of SP36 until 25
kg/ha combined with 150 kg/ha urea and KCl could enhance yield of dry
herb 44-88%. The highest thymol content (70.90%) was obtained from treatment 20 tonnes/kg manure + 150 kg/ha of each urea, SP36, and KCl, but it produced the lowest essential oil content (0.30%). Contrarily, control treatment produced the highest essential oil content (0.92%) but gave the lowest thymol content (43.99%).

Key words: Thymus vulgaris L., fertilization, growth, yield, quality


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v20n4.2014.195-202

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