POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS IN INDUCING PLANT RESISTANCE ON GINGER AGAINST BACTERIAL WILT DISEASE

SRI YUNI HARTATI, SUPRIADI SUPRIADI, SRI RAHAYUNINGSIH

Abstract


ABSTRACT
Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most
destructive diseases on ginger. The aim of this study was to evaluate the
potential use of five different medicinal plants extracts (Acalypha indica,
Andrographis paniculata, Centella asiatica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, and
Spinosa oleracea) as sources of plant resistance inducer compounds
(elicitor) against bacterial wilt disease on ginger. Salicylic acid was used
as a standard synthetical compound, as well as, water as a control
treatment. The study was conducted at the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal
Crops Research Institute, Bogor in 2010-2011. Research was conducted in
Completely Randomized Design that consisted of 7 treatments, 3
replicates, and 10 plants/ replicate. Ginger seeds were planted in a mixture
of soil and manure in polybags. One-month old ginger plants were sprayed
or drenched with each of the medicinal plant extract before and after R.
solanacearum inoculation. This experiment indicated that the medicinal
plant extracts tested were effective in reducing wilt disease incidence on
ginger. Their effectiveness varied depended on the plant species and the
application method used. Among those five medicinal plant extracts tested,
A. indica, A. paniculata, and C. xanthorrhiza were the most stable and
effective.  Their  effectiveness  were  comparable  with  the  standard
compound of salicylic acid. This finding indicated that A. indica, A.
paniculata, and C. xanthorrhiza were potentially used as sources of
botanical elicitor compounds. The use of those medicinal plant extracts as
sources of botanical elicitor, hopefully could increase ginger resistance and
rhizome production, as well as reduce the use of synthetic pesticides.
Keywords:  Medicinal  plant  extracts,  elicitor  compounds,  induced
resistance, ginger, wilt disease
ABSTRAK
Layu  bakteri  yang  disebabkan  oleh  Ralstonia  solanacearum
merupakan salah satu penyakit yang merusak tanaman jahe. Penelitian ini
bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi potensi lima jenis ekstrak tanaman obat
(akar kucing, sambiloto, pegagan, temulawak, dan bayam duri) sebagai
sumber senyawa penginduksi ketahanan (elisitor) tanaman jahe terhadap
penyakit layu. Pada penelitian ini digunakan asam salisilat sebagai
senyawa sintetik standard dan air sebagai perlakuan kontrol. Penelitian
dilaksanakan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Bogor pada
tahun  2010-2011.  Percobaan  dilaksanakan  dengan  menggunakan
rancangan acak lengkap yang terdiri atas 7 perlakuan, 3 ulangan, dan 10
tanaman/ ulangan. Rimpang jahe ditanam pada media campuran tanah dan
pupuk kandang di dalam polibeg. Jahe umur satu bulan disemprot atau
disiram dengan ekstrak tanaman obat sebelum dan setelah diinokulasi R.
solanacearum. Hasil penelitian mengindikasikan bahwa ekstrak tanaman
obat yang diuji efektif dapat mengurangi kejadian penyakit layu pada
tanaman jahe. Efektivitas dari tanaman tersebut bervariasi tergantung dari
spesies tanaman dan cara aplikasinya. Diantara kelima tanaman obat yang
diuji, akar kucing, sambiloto, dan temulawak paling stabil dan efektif
dalam mengurangi terjadinya penyakit layu. Efektivitas dari ketiga
tanaman obat tersebut sama dengan senyawa asam salisilat. Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan bahwa akar kucing, sambiloto, dan temulawak
berpotensi untuk digunakan sebagai sumber senyawa elisitor botanis.
Penggunaan  ekstrak tanaman  obat  sebagai  sumber  elisitor  botanis
diharapkan dapat meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman dan produksi jahe
serta mengurangi penggunaan pestisida sintetik.
Kata kunci: Ekstrak tanaman, senyawa elisitor, induksi ketahanan, jahe,
penyakit layu.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v20n4.2014.187-194

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