PELUANG PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS KELAPA SAWIT RAKYAT DI PROVINSI LAMPUNG

BARIOT HAFIF, Rr. ERNAWATI, YULIA PUJIARTI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Produktivitas kelapa sawit rakyat di Provinsi Lampung masih relatif
rendah dibanding potensi produktivitas optimal. Berkenaan dengan hal itu,
dari bulan Februari sampai dengan September 2012 dilakukan kajian
dengan tujuan mengidentifikasi karakteristik agroekologi dan teknis
pengelolaan kebun kelapa sawit rakyat yang berpeluang diperbaiki agar
produktivitas kebun kelapa sawit rakyat meningkat. Kebun kelapa sawit
rakyat yang diidentifikasi dipilih secara acak di tujuh kabupaten di
Provinsi Lampung. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui survei dan
wawancara petani. Rata-rata produksi tandan buah segar (TBS) kebun
kelapa sawit rakyat di Lampung masih rendah (15 ton/hektar/tahun).
Produksi ini berpeluang ditingkatkan melalui penerapan teknologi yang
dapat mengatasi sifat-sifat agroekologi sebagai faktor pembatas
pertumbuhan dan produksi kelapa sawit, seperti ketersediaan air, retensi
hara, dan bahaya erosi. Teknologi yang dibutuhkan untuk mengatasi
kendala tersebut antara lain membangun irigasi suplemen, meningkatkan
kemampuan tanah dalam menyimpan air, memperbanyak penggunaan
bahan organik dan kapur, serta mengaplikasikan teknologi konservasi
tanah dan air. Produktivitas kebun kelapa sawit rakyat akan berpeluang
meningkat  seiring  dengan  bertambahnya  umur  tanaman,  serta
meningkatnya penggunaan pupuk organik untuk tanaman yang telah
menghasilkan (TM) dan pupuk NPK untuk tanaman belum menghasilkan
(TBM). Pembinaan petani perlu diintensifkan untuk meningkatkan
kesadaran petani akan pentingnya memupuk TBM. Hasil analisis
mengindikasikan bahwa pemupukan NPK untuk TBM berkorelasi positif
dengan produktivitas kelapa sawit.
Kata kunci: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., agroekologi, pengelolaan kebun
kelapa sawit rakyat, produktivitas

ABSTRACT
Productivity of smallholder oil palm in Lampung province is still
relatively low compared to the potential for optimal productivity. A study
was conducted with regard to that, from February to September 2012 to
identify the agroecological characteristics and technical management of
smallholder oil palm plantations that likely to be improved in order to
increase the productivity of oil palm of smallholder. Smallholder
plantations studied were randomly selected, each 1 sites in seven districts
in Lampung Province and data collection was conducted through surveys
and interviews of farmers. Average production of fresh fruit bunches
(FFB) of smallholder oil palm plantations in Lampung are still low (15
tons/hectare/year). The production is likely to be enhanced through the
application of technology that is able to cope with the nature of
agroecology as the constraints of growth and production of oil palm,
namely the availability of water, nutrient retention, and erosion hazard.
The technology needed to overcome the obstacles include supplementing
irrigation, increasing the soil's ability to store water, multiplying the use
of organic materials and lime, and applying soil and water conservation
technologies. Besides that, oil palm productivity of smallholder likely
increase, along with the increasing age of the plant, the growing use of
organic fertilizer for plants that have produced (TM) and NPK fertilizer
for immature plants (TBM). Development of farmers needs to be
intensified to increase farmers' awareness of the importance of fertilizing
the TBM. The results of the analysis indicated that NPK fertilization for
TBM positively correlated with the productivity of oil palm.
Keywords: Elaeis guineens


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v20n2.2014.101-109

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