SELECTION OF VEGETATIVE AND GENERATIVE CHARACTERS OF ARABICA COFFEE BY USING SEQUENTIAL PATH ANALYSIS AND STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELS

EDI WARDIANA, DIBYO PRANOWO

Abstract


ABSTRACT
Interrelations among vegetative, generative and yield characters in
coffee plantation is important in breeding and selection programs.
Interrelationships among these characters are the causal model and it can
be analyzed by Sequential Path Analysis (SPA). This research was carried
out at Pakuwon Experimental Station located at 450 m above sea level, in
Latosol soil type with B type of climate, from December 2010 to April
2012. The objectives of this research is to analyze the direct or indirect
influence of several vegetative and generative characters on yield
characters of Arabica coffee through the application of SPA and Structural
Equation Models (SEM). The observation method with systematic
sampling on 40 Arabica coffee plants of Kartika 1 and Kartika 2 varieties
were used in this study. The results showed that the number of cherries of
Arabica coffee var. Kartika 1 and 2 population in Pakuwon Experimental
Station were affected directly by generative and indirectly by vegetative
characters. Plant height and stem girth can be used as positive selection
criteria for high yielding at vegetatite phase, while the character of width
canophy can be used as negative selection criteria. In generative phase, the
character of quantity of productive branches and the amount of berries and
flower cluster can be used as positive selection criteria.
Keywords: Coffea arabica, selection, vegetative, generative, yield,
sequential path analysis, structural equation models

ABSTRAK
Keterkaitan antara karakter vegetatif, generatif dan hasil pada
tanaman kopi merupakan hal penting dalam program pemuliaan dan
seleksi. Model saling keterkaitan antar karakter tersebut adalah model
sebab-akibat dan dapat dianalisis melalui Analisis Lintasan Bertahap
(ALB). Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Pakuwon, pada
ketinggian tempat 450 m dpl, jenis tanah Latosol, dan tipe iklim B, mulai
bulan Desember 2010 sampai April 2012. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk
menganalisis beberapa karakter vegetatif dan generatif yang berpengaruh
terhadap karakter hasil tanaman kopi Arabika melalui penggunaan ALB
dan Model Persamaan Struktural (MPS). Metode yang digunakan adalah
metode observasi dengan teknik penentuan pohon contoh secara sistematis
sebanyak 40 tanaman kopi Arabika varietas Kartika 1 dan Kartika 2. Hasil
penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah buah pada populasi kopi Arabika
varietas Kartika 1 dan 2 di KP Pakuwon dipengaruhi secara langsung oleh
karakter generatif dan secara tidak langsung oleh karakter vegetatif. Pada
fase vegetatif, karakter tinggi tanaman dan diameter batang dapat
digunakan sebagai kriteria seleksi positif untuk produksi tinggi,
sedangkan karakter lebar tajuk dapat digunakan sebagai kriteria seleksi
negatif. Pada fase generatif, karakter jumlah cabang produktif serta jumlah
klaster buah dan bunga dapat digunakan sebagai kriteria seleksi positif.
Kata kunci: Kopi arabika, seleksi, vegetatif, generatif, hasil, analisis
lintasan bertahap, model persamaan struktural


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v20n2.2014.77-86

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P-ISSN: 0853-8212
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