PATOGENISITAS Achaea janata GRANULOSIS VIRUS (AjGV) TERHADAP ULAT PEMAKAN DAUN TANAMAN JARAK KEPYAR

IGAA. INDRAYANI, HERI PRABOWO, TITIEK YULIANTI

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Achaea janata L. adalah hama penting tanaman jarak kepyar
(Ricinus  communis)  yang  hingga  kini  pengendaliannya  masih
menggunakan insektisida kimia secara intensif. Selain tidak efisien,
insektisida kimia juga menimbulkan pencemaran lingkungan. Untuk
mengatasi masalah tersebut, maka perlu cara pengendalian alternatif yang
selain efektif dan efisien, juga ramah lingkungan, seperti virus yang
diisolasi dari ulat A. janata (A. janata Granulosis Virus/AjGV). Penelitian
patogenisitas AjGV pada A. janata dilakukan di Laboratorium Patologi
Serangga Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat (Balittas) mulai
Januari - Desember 2012. Perlakuan terdiri atas enam konsentrasi AjGV,
yaitu 10 3 , 10 4 , 10 5 , 10 6 , 10 7 , 10 8 occlusion bodies (OB), dan satu kontrol.
Perlakuan disusun dalam Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan empat kali
ulangan. Ulat A. janata yang digunakan adalah instar II, III, IV, dan V
masing-masing 90 ekor/perlakuan. Parameter yang diamati adalah
mortalitas dan bobot ulat, konsentrasi untuk membunuh 50% ulat (LC 50 ),
dan waktu untuk membunuh 50% ulat (LT 50 ). Hasil penelitian
menunjukkan bahwa AjGV patogenik terhadap A. janata, terutama ulat
instar II dan III dengan mortalitas berturut-turut 90 dan 86,7%. LC 50 AjGV
pada ulat instar II dan III masing-masing mencapai 1,0 x 10 3 dan 1,2 x 10 3
OB/ml, dengan LT 50 kedua instar sekitar 3,4-4,2 hari. Pengaruh infeksi
AjGV pada ulat A. janata efektif menurunkan bobot ulat hidup 57,9 dan
57,4% masing-masing pada ulat instar II dan III. Hasil penelitian ini
mengindikasikan bahwa sasaran yang tepat untuk pengendalian ulat A.
janata dengan AjGV di lapangan adalah pada saat instar II dan III.
Kata kunci: Achaea janata L, patogenisitas, instar, mortalitas

ABSTRACT
Achaea janata L. is an important insect pest of castor plant (Ricinus
communis L.) that was intensively controlled by chemical insecticide
caused inefficiency and an environmental polution. To solve the problems
it needs an effective, efficient and environmental friendly of alternative
control, especially using Granulosis Virus isolated from A. janata larvae
(AjGV). Study on pathogenicity of A. janata virus isolate against castor
leaf-eater, A. janata L. was conducted at Insect Pathology Laboratory of
Indonesia Sweetener and Fibre Crops Research Institute in Malang from
January to December 2012. The objective of study is to test the
pathogenicity of AjGV against A. janata larvae. Treatment consists of six
concentrations of AjGV, viz. 10 3 , 10 4 , 10 5 , 10 6 , 10 7 , 10 8 OBs/ml and one
control. Four instars of larvae, e.g. second, third, fourth, and fifth were
used in this study. Each treatments was arranged in Randomized Block
Design with four replications. Parameter recorded were mortality and
weight of larvae, LC 50 , and LT 50 . Result showed that AjGV was pathogenic
to A. janata larvae, mainly on second and third instar in resulting of 90%
and 86.7% of mortality, respectively. The LC 50 of AjGV on the second and
third instar was 1.0 x 10 3 and 1.2 x 10 3 OB/ml, respectively and the LT 50
was 3.4 and 4.2 days, respectively. Infection of A. janata virus reduced
the weight of both instar up to 57.9% and 57.4%, respectively. This result
indicated that the second and third was the suitable instars of A. janata
larvae for better control of AjGV in field.
Key word: Achaea janata L, pathogenicity, instar, mortality


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v20n2.2014.57-64

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