EFEKTIVITAS FORMULA JAMUR Beauveria bassiana DALAM PENGENDALIAN PENGGEREK BUAH KAPAS (Helicoverpa armigera)

IGAA. INDRAYANI, DECIYANTO SOETOPO, JOKO HARTONO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Jamur entomopatogen Beauveria bassiana sangat potensial
mengendalikan berbagai serangga hama, namun potensinya terhadap
penggerek buah kapas (Helicoverpa armigera) belum banyak diteliti.
Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas B. bassiana
terhadap H. armigera. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Patologi
Serangga dan Kebun Percobaan Karangploso, Balai Penelitian Tanaman
Pemanis dan Serat mulai Januari hingga Desember 2012. Penelitian terdiri
atas dua kegiatan di lapangan, yaitu (1) uji efektivitas B. bassiana terhadap
H. armigera di pot, dan (2) uji efektivitas B. bassiana terhadap H.
armigera di lapangan. Kegiatan pertama terdiri dari delapan perlakuan
konsentrasi B. bassiana, yaitu: (1) 3,7 x 10 4 ; (2) 7,7 x 10 4 ; (3) 1,2 x 10 5 ;
(4) 1,5 x 10 5 ; (5) 1,9 x 10 5;  (6) 2,3 x 10 5;  (7) 2,5 x 10 5 ; (8) 3,0 x 10 5
konidia/ml; dan (9) kontrol. Perlakuan disusun dalam Rancangan Acak
Kelompok dengan 3 kali ulangan. Parameter yang diamati adalah
mortalitas dan bobot larva hidup. Kegiatan kedua terdiri dari empat
perlakuan konsentrasi B. bassiana, yaitu: (1) 3,1 x 10 11 ; (2) 6,2 x 10 11 ; (3)
9,3 x 10 11 ; dan (4) 1,2 x 10 12 konidia/ha dengan dua pembanding
(azadirachtin dan betasiflutrin), serta kontrol. Perlakuan disusun dalam
Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan tiga kali ulangan. Parameter yang
diamati adalah populasi larva H. armigera dan laba-laba, kerusakan buah
kapas, dan hasil kapas berbiji. Hasil uji efektivitas di pot menunjukkan
hingga hari ke-7 setelah perlakuan B. bassiana masih efektif menyebabkan
mortalitas larva H. armigera sebesar 46,7% dan meningkatkan kehilangan
bobot larva hidup hingga 59,3%, terutama pada konsentrasi 2,3 x 10 5
konidia/ml. Di lapangan, perlakuan jamur B. bassiana efektif menurunkan
populasi larva H. armigera sekitar 36-48%, tetapi menurunkan populasi
laba-laba hingga 48,4%, sehingga kurang aman bagi musuh alami tersebut.
Perlakuan B. bassiana dapat menurunkan kerusakan buah kapas 10,1-
10,3% dengan meningkatkan hasil kapas berbiji sekitar 12,1-29,7%.
Kata kunci: Beauveria bassiana, Helicoverpa armigera, konidia, larva,
mortalitas

ABSTRACT
Beauveria bassiana is the most common fungal entomopathogen
against several of insect pests. Its potency, however, has not been tested on
cotton bollworm, H. armigera. The objective of study was to know the
effectivity of B. bassiana against H. armigera. This study had been
conducted at Pathology Laboratory and Experimental Station of
Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute (ISFCRI) from
January to December 2012. The study consists of two field tests, e.g. test
on B. bassiana effectivity against H. armigera (polybag testing) dan test
on B. bassiana effectivity a against H. armigera (field testing). In polybag
testing, eight concentrations of B. bassiana and one control were used as
treatment, e.g. (1) 3.7 x 10 4 ; (2) 7.7 x 10 4 ; (3) 1.2 x 10 5 ; (4) 1.5 x 10 5 ; (5)
1.9 x 10 5;  (6) 2.3 x 10 5;  (7) 2.5 x 10 5 ; (8) 3.0 x 10 5  conidia/ml; and (9)
control. Each treatment was arranged in Randomized Block Design with
three replications. Parameters recorded were mortality and weight of
survival larvae. The field testing consists of four concentrations of B.
bassiana viz. 3.1 x 10 11 ; 6.2 x 10 11 ; 9.3 x 10 11 ; and (4) 1.2 x 10 12 conidia/ha
which compared to azadirachtin and betacyfluthrin. Each treatment was
arranged in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Parameter
observed were population of H. armigera larvae and its natural enemy
(spiders), boll damage, and seed cotton yield. Result showed that until the
day seventh the mortality of H. armigera larvae reached 46.7% due to B.
bassiana and loss 59.3% of larval weight at 2,3 x 10 5 conidia/ml in
polybag testing. In field testing, B. bassiana proved to be relatively
harmful to spiders because it reduced the their population as 48.4%.
However, the B. bassiana reduced of 36-48% the population of H.
armigera larvae as well as the cotton boll damage of 10.1-10.3% and
increased the seed cotton yield ranged 12.1-29.7%.
Key words: Beauveria bassiana, Helicoverpa armigera, conidia, larvae,
mortality


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v19n4.2013.178-185

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