PEWARISAN SIFAT HERMAPRODIT DAN KONTRIBUSINYA TERHADAP DAYA HASIL PADA JARAK PAGAR (Jatropha curcas L.)

RR. SRI HARTATI, SUDARSONO SUDARSONO

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Kontribusi sifat hermaprodit terhadap daya hasil tanaman jarak
pagar belum banyak diketahui. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui peran
bunga hermaprodit terhadap daya hasil dan mekanisme pewarisannya.
Penelitian dilakukan terhadap 60 genotipe jarak pagar di Kebun Percobaan
Balittri Sukabumi. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai bulan Mei 2007 sampai
dengan Juli 2010. Jarak tanam 2 m x 2 m, menggunakan 2,5 kg pupuk
kandang + 20 g Urea + 20 g SP 36 + 10 g KCl per tanaman. Penelitian
terdiri dari (1) evaluasi tipe bunga jarak pagar dan (2) pewarisan sifat
hermaprodit dan kontribusinya terhadap daya hasil. Hasil evaluasi
menunjukkan bahwa delapan dari 60 genotipe jarak pagar yang dievaluasi
merupakan tanaman tri-monoecious yang menghasilkan bunga jantan,
bunga betina, dan bunga hermaprodit, 52 lainnya merupakan tanaman
monoecious yang hanya menghasilkan bunga jantan dan bunga betina.
Karakter yang dimiliki oleh delapan genotipe tri-monoecious yang
dievaluasi adalah lebih lambat berbunga (mulai berbunga pada umur 120-
274 hari) dan berdaya hasil rendah sampai sedang (jumlah buah 23-228
per tanaman pada tahun pertama). Kemunculan bunga hermaprodit tidak
terjadi sepanjang tahun, tetapi lebih dominan pada tanaman berumur enam
bulan. Persentase bunga hermaprodit berkisar 6,25-53% dari total bunga
yang dihasilkan. Persentase fruitset pada tandan bunga hermaprodit lebih
tinggi dibanding tandan bunga non-hermaprodit, dengan tingkat
keberhasilan rata-rata 80% (kisaran 56-100%). Pada tandan bunga yang
tidak menghasilkan bunga hermaprodit, buah jadi rata-rata sebesar 50%
(kisaran 11-100%). Daya hasil tanaman jarak pagar ditentukan oleh
genetik tetua. Bunga hermaprodit diwariskan oleh tetua betina maupun
tetua jantan. Gen pengendali sifat hermaprodit diduga adalah gen
sederhana yang bersifat dominan.
Kata kunci: Jatropha  curcas,  monoecious,  tri-monoecious,  bunga
hermaprodit, fruit set

ABSTRACT
Hermaphrodite character has been reported in physic nut, its role
and contribution to production process especially to the yield has not been
investigated. The objectives of this research were to evaluate
hermaphrodite flowers contribution on yield and their mechanism
inheritance. The evaluation was conducted at the Experimental Station of
Balittri Sukabumi from May 2007 to July 2010. The spacing was 2 m x 2
m with 2,5 kg manure + 20 g Urea + 20 g SP 36 + 10 g KCl/plant. The
experiment consisted of (1) evaluation of flower type of physic nut and
(2) hermaphrodite inheritance and their contribution on yield. Results of
the experiment indicated eight from 60 physic nut genotypes were tri-
monoecious which were capable on producing male, female, and
hermaphrodite flowers while as the rest (52 genotypes) were monoecious
which produced only male and female flowers. The tri-monoecious were
generally late flowering (120-274 days after planting) and low to medium
yield (producing 23-228 fruits per plant in the first year). Hermaphrodite
flowers generally occurred six months after planting at the amount ranged
from 6,25-53% of total flowers. Fruit set of inflorescences having
hermaphrodite flowers was higher, average of 80% (ranged from 56-
100%) than those with female and male flowers, average of 50% (ranged
from 11-100%). Yield of physic nut was affected by the genetic potential
of their parents rather than hermaphrodite character. Hermaphrodite flower
character was inherited by both female and male parents and might be
controlled by simple-dominant gene.
Key words: Jatropha curcas, monoecious, tri-monoecious, hermaphrodite
flower, fruit set


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v19n3.2013.117-129

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