PENGARUH CEKAMAN KURANG AIR TERHADAP BEBERAPA KARAKTER FISIOLOGIS TANAMAN NILAM (Pogostemon cablin Benth)

SETIAWAN SETIAWAN, TOHARI TOHARI, DJA’FAR SHIDDIEQ

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth) merupakan salah satu tanaman
penghasil minyak atsiri yang dikenal dengan minyak nilam (patchouli oil).
Salah satu kendala dalam pengembangan tanaman nilam adalah peka
terhadap kekurangan air. Perubahan iklim cenderung menyebabkan lebih
sering terjadi kekeringan di sejumlah wilayah termasuk Indonesia sehingga
dalam pengembangan tanaman nilam diperlukan varietas toleran terhadap
cekaman kurang air. Terdapat tiga varietas unggul nilam (Tapaktuan,
Sidikalang, dan Lhokseumawe) dengan produksi minyak (290-375 kg/ha)
dengan kadar patchouli alkohol 32–33%. Penelitian bertujuan untuk
mengevaluasi respon fisiologis 4 varietas/aksesi tanaman nilam terhadap
cekaman kurang air. Penelitian dilaksanakan di rumah kaca di Bogor pada
tahun 2012. Penelitian menggunakan RAK faktorial dengan tiga ulangan.
Faktor  pertama  4  varietas/aksesi  nilam  (V)  yaitu  Sidikalang,
Lhokseumawe, Tapaktuan, dan Bio-4. Faktor kedua empat interval
penyiraman (W) yaitu 1, 3, 6, dan 9 hari sekali. Evaluasi pengaruh
cekaman kurang air dilakukan terhadap beberapa karakter fisiologi
tanaman nilam. Pengamatan dilakukan antara lain terhadap peubah kadar
lengas tanah, konduktivitas stomata (Gs), laju transpirasi (Tr), kandungan
air nisbi (KAN), potensial air daun (PAD) dan kandungan prolin daun.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terjadi penurunan kadar lengas tanah,
konduktivitas stomata, laju transpirasi, dan KAN pada semua varietas,
sedangkan PAD dan kadar prolin meningkat seiring dengan semakin
lamanya interval penyiraman. Kadar prolin tertinggi pada interval 9 hari
sekali pada varietas Sidikalang. Tidak terdapat perbedaan respon
varietas/aksesi nilam yang diuji.
Kata kunci: Pogostemon cablin Benth, cekaman kurang air, karakter
fisiologis.

ABSTRACT
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth) is one of plant that produces
patchouli oil call patchouli oil. However, patchouli is susceptible to
drought. The effect of global warming which changes rainfall pattern
caused droughts in several regions including Indonesia. Therefore, it is
important to find patchouli variety which is relatively tolerant to drought.
Tapaktuan, Sidikalang, dan Lhokseumawe are three varieties of patchouli
which produce high essential oil (290-375 kg/ha) with high patchouli
alcohol content (32–33%). The objective of this research was to evaluate
the physiological responses of four varieties/clone of patchouli to drought.
The experiment was conducted at greenhouse at Cimanggu, Bogor from
February to July 2012. The research was designed in randomized factorial
block design (RBD) with three replications. The first factor was four
varieties/clone of patchouli (V) Sidikalang, Lhokseumawe, Tapaktuan, and
Bio-4. The second factor was four watering intervals (W) every 1, 3, 6
and 9 days of watering. Parameters evaluated were physiological
characteristics, soil moisture content, stomatal conductance, transpiration
rate (Tr), leaf water potential, relative water content, and proline content of
leaf. The results showed that soil moisture content, stomatal conductivity,
transpiration rate and relative water content decreased, while leaf water
potential and proline levels increased along with the increase of watering
intervals. The highest proline level was at interval of nine days watering
treatment on Sidikalang varieties. However, all varieties/clone have not
different responses to water deficit.
Key words: Pogostemon  cablin  Benth,water  deficit,  physiological
characteristics


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v19n3.2013.108-116

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