PENGARUH AIR KELAPA TERHADAP MULTIPLIKASI TUNAS IN VITRO, PRODUKSI RIMPANG, DAN KANDUNGAN XANTHORRHIZOL TEMULAWAK DI LAPANGAN

NATALINI NOVA KRISTINA, SITTI FATIMAH SYAHID

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Langkah antisipatif pemenuhan kebutuhan massal benih temulawak
dilakukan dengan perbanyakan secara in vitro menggunakan medium
tumbuh yang murah mengandung air kelapa. Penelitian bertujuan untuk
menganalisis kandungan kimia air kelapa dan peranannya dalam multi-
plikasi tunas temulawak in vitro, serta pengaruhnya terhadap produksi
rimpang dan kandungan xanthorrizol. Penelitian dilakukan mulai Mei
2009 sampai Agustus 2010 di Laboratorium dan Kebun Percobaan Balai
Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat; serta Balai Besar Penelitian dan
Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian. Air kelapa yang digunakan berasal
dari kelapa muda (7-8 bulan) dan kelapa tua berumur (10-12 bulan).
Penelitian dilakukan secara bertahap, terdiri atas 4 kegiatan. Pertama,
analisis zat pengatur tumbuh, vitamin dan mineral dalam air kelapa
menggunakan metode HPLC. Kedua, pengaruh konsentrasi air kelapa (0,
5, 10, 15, 20, dan 25%) terhadap multiplikasi tunas temulawak in vitro.
Kegiatan dirancang secara acak kelompok, 3 ulangan. Pengamatan
meliputi parameter pertumbuhan. Ketiga, aklimatisasi dan kandungan
klorofil tanaman hasil in vitro. Keempat, pertumbuhan dan produksi
rimpang benih temulawak in vitro dalam pot berisi media tanah + pasir dan
analisis kandungan xanthorrizolnya. Rancangan penelitian acak kelompok,
3 ulangan, dan parameter pengamatan karakter pertumbuhan, produksi
rimpang, dan kandungan xanthorrizol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan
bahwa air kelapa mengandung kinetin, zeatin, auksin, vitamin, mineral dan
sumber karbon yang berguna untuk multiplikasi tunas in vitro. Kandungan
kimia air kelapa muda lebih tinggi dibanding air kelapa tua. Medium
tumbuh mengandung air kelapa 15% terbaik dalam merangsang pertum-
buhan tunas in vitro (rata-rata 4,6 jumlah tunas per botol selama periode
awal pertumbuhan (8 minggu) sehingga dijadikan sebagai standar perba-
nyakan. Bibit temulawak hasil perbanyakan in vitro tumbuh baik (72%)
pada masa aklimatisasi, walaupun sebagian kecil ada yang menguning.
Kandungan klorofil a, b, dan total klorofil temulawak asal kultur in vitro
lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan yang konvensional, dan bentuk
rimpangnya normal. Poduksi rimpang generasi awal (Vo) mencapai rata-
rata 320,2g, lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan rimpang konvensional
(800,5g). Kandungan xanthorrhizol temulawak hasil kultur in vitro lebih
rendah dibandingkan rimpang konvensional. Hasil penelitian mengindi-
kasikan potensi air kelapa sebagai zat pengatur tumbuh alami pada
temulawak in vitro.
Kata kunci: air kelapa, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, in vitro, xanthorrhizol,
hasil

ABSTRACT
Anticipated step for Java turmeric seed massal fulfillment was
conducted by in vitro using cheap growth medium enriched with coconut
water. The aim of the research was to analyse the chemical content of
coconut water and its role on java turmeric micropropagation in vitro and
their effect on yield and xanthorrhizol content. The experiement was
conducted from May 2009 to August 2009 at Indonesian Spices and
Medicinal Research Institute and Indonsian Center for Agricultural Post
Harvest Research and Development. The coconut water used comes from
young coconut (7-8 months) and old coconut (10-12 months). The research
consisted of four steps. First, analysis of growth regulator, vitamin and
sucrose from coconut water using HPLC method. Second, the effect of
several concentration od water coconut: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% on in
vitro multiplication. The experiment was arranged in completely block
design with three replicates. The parameters observed were growth of
culture during in vitro. Third, acclimatization and chlorophyll content of
plant derived from in vitro and fourth, growth, and yield of java turmeric
seed on pot containing soil + sand as growth medium and xanthorrhizol
analysis. The experiment was arranged in completely block design with
three replicates. The parameters observed were growth characters, yield
and xnthorrhizol content. Result showed that coconut water contain
kinetin, zeatin, auksin, vitamin, mineral and carbon source which used for
in vitro shoots multiplication. The chemical of young coconut water was
higher than old coconut. The growth medium enriched with 15 % coconut
water gave the best result on inducing shoots in vitro (average 4.6
shoots/bottle during 8 weeks culture), so it’s used as multiplication
standard. Java turmeric seed from in vitro culture grew well (72%) on
acclimatization. Although, some of them were greenish.The content of a,
b, and total chlorophyll of java ginger from in vitro culture was higher than
conventional rhizome and have a normal rhizome. The production on Vo
(plantlet generation) around 320.2 g/plant, is lower than conventional
rhyzome (800.5 g). Xanthorhizol and essential oil content of Java turmeric
from in vitro seed were lower than conventional rhyzome. Result research
indicated potency of the coconut water as a nature growth regulator in
vitro.
Key words: coconut water, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, in vitro, growth,
xanthorrhizol, yield


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v18n3.2012.125-134

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