PENGARUH JARAK TANAM DAN DOSIS PUPUK TERHADAP PRODUKSI DAN VIABILITAS BENIH SETEK NILAM (Pogostemon cablin Benth)

SUKARMAN SUKARMAN

Abstract


ABSTRAK
Sampai saat ini informasi pengaruh jarak tanam dan dosis pupuk
terhadap produktivitas, dan viabilitas benih nilam (Pogostemon cablin
Benth) masih terbatas. Untuk itu penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan
mendapatkan jarak tanam dan dosis pupuk yang optimum untuk produksi
benih/setek nilam. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan (KP)
Sukamulya, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Industri Lain (Balittri),
Pakuwon, Parungkuda, Sukabumi, dari Januari sampai November 2010.
Percobaan faktorial, dengan tiga faktor dan tiga ulangan, disusun dalam
rancangan petak terbagi dua kali (RPPT). Petak utama adalah dua varietas
nilam yaitu Sidikalang dan Lhokseumawe. Anak petak adalah tiga jarak
tanam yaitu (1) 1 x 0,5 m; (2) 1 x 0,7 m; dan (3) 1 x 1 m. Anak-anak petak
adalah dua dosis pemupukan yaitu : 1) 30 ton pupuk kandang, 300 kg urea,
150 kg SP-36, dan 300 kg KCl/th, dan 2) 45 ton pupuk kandang, 450 kg
urea, 225 kg SP-36, dan 450 kg KCl/th. Ukuran plot 8,4 x 5 m. Parameter
yang diamati adalah pertumbuhan tanaman (tinggi tanaman, jumlah
cabang primer, sekunder, dan tersier), produksi benih pertanaman,
diameter bagian pangkal, tengah, dan pucuk dari cabang primer dan
sekunder, kadar karbohidrat dan serat, dan viabilitas benih setek.
Pengamatan dilakukan pada umur enam bulan setelah tanam (6 BST).
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa : (1) varietas Sidikalang dengan
dosis pemupukan 45 ton pupuk kandang, 450 kg urea, 225 kg SP-36, dan
450 kg KCl/th, menghasilkan jumlah cabang primer paling tinggi yaitu
14,29; (2) jarak tanam 1 x 0,5 m menghasilkan benih setek tertinggi
(73.555 stek/1.000 m 2 ). Rata-rata diameter benih berasal dari pangkal ≥ 5
mm, sedangkan rata-rata diameter benih berasal dari pucuk ≥ 4 mm; (3)
Viabilitas benih pada 0 dan 4 hari setelah penyimpanan ≥ 80%. Jarak
tanam 1 x 0,5 m dengan dosis pupuk kandang sebanyak 30 ton, 300 kg
urea, 150 kg SP-36, dan 300 kg KCl pertahun merupakan dosis yang
optimal untuk produksi benih/setek nilam. Kombinasi perlakuan
pemupukan 30 ton pupuk kandang, 300 kg urea, 150 kg SP-36, 300 kg
KCl/th dengan jarak tanam 1 x 0,5 m menghasilkan keuntungan tertinggi
yaitu: Rp 6.668.500 dengan nilai B/C 2,05.
Kata kunci : Pogostemon cablin Benth, jarak tanam, pemupukan,
produksi, kualitas benih/setek

ABSTRACT
Effect of Spacing and Fertilizer Dosages on Production
and Viability of Patchouli Cutting Seeds
Information on the effect of plant density and fertilizer dosage on
the production and viability of patchouli seeds is still limited. This
experiment was aimed at finding out optimum plant spacing and fertilizer
dosage for improving production and quality of patchouli cutting seeds.
The experiment was conducted at Sukamulya experimental station of
Indonesian Spice and Industrial Crops Research Institute (ISICRI),
Pakuwon, Sukabumi from January through November 2010. This
experiment was consisted of three factors and three replicates and was
arranged in a split-split-plot design. The main plots were two varieties of
patchouli, i.e. V1 = Sidikalang and V2 = Lhokseumawe. The sub plots
were three plant spacing dimentions, i.e. S1 (1 x 0.5 m), S2 (1 x 0.7 m),
and S3 (1 x 1 m). The sub-sub plots were two levels of fertilizer dosage,
i.e. F1 (manure; urea, SP-36, and KCl of 30 t; 450, 225, and 450 kg/ha,
respectively) and F2 (manure; urea, SP-36, and KCl of 45 t; 300, 150, and
450 kg/year, respectively). Variables observed were plant growth (plant
height; number of primary, secondary, and tertiary branches), seed
productivity and viability, diameter of bottom, medium, and upper of
cutting seeds. The results of experiment indicated that Sidikalang variety,
treated with 45 tons of manure, 450 kg urea, 225 kg SP-36, and 450 kg
KCl per hectare produced the highest number of primary branches
compared to other treatments. Plant spacing of 1 x 0.5 m produced the
highest number of cutting seeds (73,555 stumps/1,000m 2 ). The averaged
diameters of cutting seeds from basal were ≥ 5 mm while those from top
were ≥ 4 mm. Viability of the cutting seeds at 0 and 4 days after storage
was ≥ 80%. Plant spacing 1 x 0.5 m with dosage of fertilizer 30 ton dung
manure, 300 kg urea, 150 kg SP-36, and 300 kg KCl per year is the dosage
optimum for producing seed/cutting of patchouli. Combination of fertilizer
dosages of 30 tons manure, 300 kg urea, 150 kg SP-36, and 300 kg KCl
per year and plant spacing of 1 x 0.5 m produced the highest profit as
much as Rp 6,668,500 with B/C value of 2.05.
Key words: Pogostemon cablin Benth, plant spacing, fertilizer,
production, cutting seed quality


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v18n2.2012.81-87

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