PENGARUH TINGKAT KEMATANGAN BUAH TERHADAP AKTIVITAS LARVASIDA DAN SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA MINYAK KAMANDRAH (Croton tiglium L.)

NOOR ROUFIQ AHMADI, DJUMALI MANGUNWIDJAJA, ONO SUPARNO, DYAH ISWANTINI P.

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Indonesia terkenal kaya akan keanekaragaman hayati, termasukjenis tumbuhan yang mengandung bahan aktif insektisida. Tanamankamandrah (Croton tiglium L.) merupakan salah satu tanaman obat yangbanyak terdapat di wilayah Indonesia dan telah dimanfaatkan sebagaiinsektisida nabati. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristikfisiko-kimia minyak kamandrah pada berbagai tingkat kematangan sebagailarvasida nabati terhadap larva nyamuk demam berdarah dengue (A.aegypti). Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Balai Penelitian TanamanRempah dan Aneka Tanaman Industri (Balittri) Sukabumi, Balai BesarLitbang  Pascapanen  Pertanian  Bogor,  Insektarium  LaboratoriumParasitologi dan Entomologi Kesehatan FKH IPB Bogor, dan Biofarmaka-LPPM IPB Bogor, mulai bulan Februari sampai Desember 2010. Minyakkamandrah diperoleh dengan ekstraksi menggunakan pengempa hidrolikpada suhu 65 o C dan tekanan 7,9 MPa pada buah kamandrah dengan tigatingkat kematangan yang berbeda: warna kulit buah hijau kecokelatan,cokelat kehijauan, dan cokelat penuh. Minyak yang diperoleh selanjutnyadianalisis bilangan asam, kadar asam lemak bebas, bilangan peroksida,indeks bias, berat jenis, dan nilai warna minyak, serta uji larvasidaterhadap larva nyamuk A. aegypti instar III. Penentuan nilai lethalconcentration (LC) dilakukan dengan metode probit analisis (FinneyMethod). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan nilai LC,rendemen, dan mutu minyaknya, buah kamandrah yang berwarna kulitcokelat penuh lebih berpotensi sebagai larvasida nabati terhadap larva A.aegypti. Rendemen minyak kamandrah 20,42% dan nilai LC 50 adalah132,67 ppm (24 jam) dan 70,08 ppm (48 jam). Minyak tersebut memilikibilangan asam 8,76 mg KOH/g minyak; kadar asam lemak bebas 4,36 mgKOH/g minyak; bilangan peroksida 3,59 meq O/100g minyak; indeks bias1,4783; bobot jenis 0,9466 g/ml; dan warna meliputi nilai L* 73,03; a*3,26; dan b* 64,13. Minyak kamandrah berpotensi dapat dimanfaatkansebagai larvasida nabati dalam pengendalian vektor penyakit DBD.

Kata kunci : Croton tiglium L., kematangan buah, minyak kamandrah,larvasida

ABSTRACT

Effect of Maturity Level of Fruits on Larvicidal Activityand Physico-Chemical Properties of Kamandrah (Crotontiglium L.) Oil

Indonesia is famously rich in biodiversity, including species of plants thatcontain active ingredient for insecticide. Kamandrah plant (Croton tigliumL.) is one of many medicinal plants found in parts of Indonesia and it hasbeen used as an insecticidal plant. The objectives this research were todetermine the physico-chemical characteristics and larvasidal activities ofoil extracted from kamandrah seeds with varying levels of maturity asbotanical larvicide for mosquito dengue fever. The expreriments wereconducted in the Laboratory of Indonesian Spice and Industrial CropsResearch Institute (ISICRI) Sukabumi, Indonesian Center for AgriculturalPostharvest Research  and  Development (ICAPRD),  InsectariumLaboratory of Health Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinaryof Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), and Biopharmaca IPB Bogor,from February to December 2010. The oil was obtained through extractionusing hydraulic pressurer at 65 o C temperatures and 7.9 MPa pressures ofkamandrah fruits with three different maturity levels : brownish green,greenish brown, and fully brown color of fruit skins. Oil gained was thenanalyzed its acid number, free fatty acid content, peroxides number,refractive index, specific gravity, and oil color values, as well as the oillarvasida test against mosquito larvae A. aegypti instar III. Determinationthe oil lethal concentration (LC) values was tested using probit analysismethod (Finney Method). The results showed that based on the values ofLC, content, and quality of the oil, full-brown colored kamandrah fruits aremore potential as larvivida against A. aegypti larvae. Oil content of thekamandrah was 20.42% while LC 50 values were 132.67 ppm (at 24 hours)and 70.08 ppm (at 48 hours). The acid number of the oil was 8.76 mgKOH/g oil; free fatty acid level of 4.36 mg KOH/g oil; peroxide number of3.59 meq O/100 g oil, refractive index of 1.4783; density of 0.9466 g/ml;and the color values were 73.03, 3.26, and 64.13 for L*, a*, and b*,respectively. Therefore, kamandrah oil is very potential to be used aslarvicide for controling the vector of dengue disease.

Key words: Croton tiglium L., fruit maturity, kamandrah oil, larvicide


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v17n4.2011.163-168

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