KARAKTERISASI SIFAT MORFOLOGI DAN PENYEBARAN KAYU AKWAY (Drymis sp.) DI PAPUA BARAT

M. SYAKIR, N. BERMAWIE, H. AGUSTA, E.N. PAISEY

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Kayu akway merupakan tumbuhan obat yang banyak digunakanoleh masyarakat suku Arfak di Papua Barat. Tanaman ini digunakansebagai obat untuk meningkatkan kemampuan seksual dan stamina untukberaktivitas. Penelitian mengenai karakter morfologi dan penyebarantanaman akway telah dilakukan di Distrik Menyambouw, Manokwari padaketinggian 1.200, 1.600, 2.000, dan 2.400 m dml sejak bulan Septembersampai November 2007. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah petaktunggal berdasarkan fase pertumbuhan yang ditentukan secara purposifdibuat sebanyak 3 petak sehingga setiap ketinggian diperoleh 12 petakpercobaan dimana masing-masing petak diambil 3 sampel untuk masing-masing spesies yang ditemukan. Hasil identifikasi morfologi dari sampeltanaman yang ada ditemukan tiga jenis kayu akway pada berbagaiketinggian, yaitu : kayu akway putih (Drymis winterii), merah besar(Drymis piperita), dan merah kecil (Drymis beccariana). Perbedaanmorfologi dari ketiga spesies ditunjukkan oleh pepagan bagian luar, arahtumbuh batang, model aksitektur, warna pucuk, warna daun, susunan daun,bentuk helaian daun, dan tepi daun. Hasil analisis fitokomia dari ekstrakdaun, kulit batang, dan akar dari ketiga spesies kayu akway terbuktimengandung senyawa afrodisiak seperti : saponin, alkaloid, dan steroid.Populasi tanaman kayu akway putih jumlahnya meningkat pada ketinggianyang bertambah tinggi, kayu akway merah besar populasinya relatif samauntuk setiap ketinggian yang berubah, sedangkan kayu akway merah kecilsemakin tinggi elevasi tanaman semakin banyak jumlahnya. Hasilidentifikasi tipe tanah dan iklim tempat tumbuh ketiga spesies kayu akwayini ternyata mengandung C organic 3,95%, N total 0,34% dan phosphor13,10 ppm, serta tumbuh di dataran tinggi dengan suhu udara rata-rata18,5ºC, kelembapan 70% dan intensitas matahari 898 candle.

Kata kunci : Drymis sp., karakterisasi, morfologi, penyebaran

ABSTRACT

Morphology Characterization and Spread of Drymis sp.In West Papua

Drymis sp. is one of the medicinal plants used in Arfak ethnic inMenyambouw, Manokwari Papua Barat. Part of the plant extract (root,leaf, bark and trunk) used to increase stamina for their activity. This studyconducted to find out the morphology characters and spread of Drymis sp.in different elevation e.q. 1,200, 1,600, 2,000 and 2,400 m above sea levelfrom September to November 2007. Experimental design for this studyused compartment method based on growth phase which is determined bypurposively in every elevation 3 plots or 12 plots for 3 species in the sameelevation. In each species will be selected 3 plants for sample. Afteridentification of sample, data of morphology character will be recorded ineach species, chemical component of soil in the area of study, and locationspread from each species. The results show that 3 species of Drymis sp.found in that area e.q. Drymis winterii, Drymis piperita, and Drymisbeccariana. There were morphological differences of the species; onoutside of bark, direction of stem, tree architectures, leaf color, leaf shape,leaf formation, and leaf apex. Result of phytochemical analysis derivedfrom leaf, bark and root extract of the three species of Drymis sp. provedthat there were higher contents of saponin, alkaloid, and steroidconcentrations known as part of afrodisiak component. Soil and climate ofthis study area contained 3.95% C-organic, 0.34% total N, and 13.10 ppmphosphor. This Drymis species grew in higher altitude with airtemperature, RH, and sunlight intensity of 18.5ºC, 70%, and 898 candlerespectevely. Based on different level of altitude at 1200, 1600, 2000, and2400 m above sea level, result showed that D. winterii increased theirnumber of population compared to other species. In D. peperita, theinfluence of altitude to number of population was relatively the same. Butin D. beccariana, population decreased in higher elevation. The soil onwhich the plants grew contained 3.95% organic C, 0.34% total N, and13.10 ppm phosphor with the average air temperature of 18.5°C, relativehumidity 70%, and sunlight intensity of 898 candles.

Key words : Drymis sp., charaterization, morphology, spread


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v17n4.2011.169-173

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