PENGGUNAAN AIR KELAPA SEBAGAI ZAT PENGATUR TUMBUH PADA MULTIPLIKASI TUNAS TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) IN VITRO

DELIAH SESWITA

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Tanaman temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) merupakansalah satu tanaman obat potensial unggulan yang memiliki khasiatmultifungsi. Rimpangnya yang berkhasiat obat mampu mengobati ber-bagai penyakit seperti kelainan pada hati/lever, kantong empedu, danpankreas. Adanya kecenderungan masyarakat ingin menggunakan pengo-batan dengan bahan alami, menjadikan permintaan benih temulawaksebagai bahan baku obat maupun industri jamu di Indonesia meningkatdengan pesat. Kondisi ini memberi peluang kepada petani sebagaipenyedia bahan tanaman. Upaya penyediaan bahan tanaman secara massaldalam waktu singkat serta bebas hama dan penyakit dapat dilakukanmelalui teknik kultur jaringan. Teknik ini dibatasi oleh tingginya biayaperbanyakan, di antaranya penggunaan bahan kimia. Oleh karena itu perludikaji penggunaan zat pengatur tumbuh (ZPT) yang berasal dari bahanalami (salah satunya adalah air kelapa) sebagai substitusi ZPT sintetik.Penelitian penggunaan air kelapa sebagai ZPT dilakukan di LaboratoriumKultur Jaringan Plasma Nutfah Pemuliaan dan Perbenihan, BalaiPenelitian Tanaman Obat dan Aromatik Bogor, dari bulan Mei sampaidengan bulan Desember 2009. Eksplan berasal dari tunas temulawak sterilhasil perbanyakan sebelumnya. Media yang digunakan adalah mediaMurashige and Skoog (MS) yang dikombinasikan dengan beberapa tarafkonsentrasi air kelapa (0, 5, 10, 15, dan 20%) sebagai substitusi ZPT danair kelapa dengan memakai millipore. Media dibuat padat, sebagaipembanding pada media MS + ZPT kimia yaitu BA1,5 mg/l. Percobaanmenggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 10 ulangan. Parameteryang diuji adalah jumlah tunas, jumlah daun dan jumlah akar. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan, tanpa komponen kimia, dengan penambah airkelapa pada berbagai konsentrasi pada media dasar MS, berhasilmembentuk tunas, daun dan akar. Jumlah tunas terbanyak didapat padakombinasi media dengan penambahan air kelapa 15% sebanyak 3,4 tunas,jumlah daun 2,2 daun serta jumlah akar terbanyak yaitu sebanyak 13,2akar pada umur 2 minggu. Pada kombinasi media dengan memakaimillipore, tunas terbanyak hanya 2,6 tunas, tetapi tidak berbeda nyatadengan perlakuan kontrol MS + BA 1,5 mg/l, yaitu sama-sama memiliki2,6 tunas, 3,6 daun, dan 15,4 akar.

Kata kunci : Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., in vitro, air kelapa, zatpengatur tumbuh, multiplikasi in vitro

ABSTRACT

The use of Coconut Water as Growth Regulator onMultiplication of Java Turmeric Buds (Curcumaxanthorrhiza Roxb. ) in vitro

Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) is a potentialmedicinal plant which has many uses. Its rhizome has efficacy to curevarious diseases such as disorder on lever, gall bladder and pancreas.There is a tendency that people want to use therapy by natural materials,increases demand of turmeric seed as raw material of medicine industry inIndonesia. This condition provides a chance to farmers as supplier of plantmaterials. However, up to now, the high need of plant materials causes thelimitation of supply so that their alternatives are needed for providing plantmaterials in maximum number. The part of plant material provision in highnumber and in a short time and free from pests and diseases can beconducted through tissue culture technique. However, this technique islimited by the high cost of multiplication, among others the use ofchemical materials. Therefore, the use of growth regulator originated fromnatural material as substitution of synthetic growth regulator need to beassessed, one of them is coconut water. The experiment was carried out atthe laboratory of Tissue Culture, Germ Plasm, and Plant Breeding,Indonesia for Medicinal and Aromatic Crop Research Institute, Bogorfrom May to December 2009. Explants originated from sterile turmericshoots, product of previous multiplication. Media used was Murashige andSkoog (MS) combined with several concentration levels of coconut water( 0; 5; 10; 15, and 20%) as substitution of growth regulator and coconutwater by using millipore. Solid media was used, as comparison on mediaof chemical MS + was BA1.5 mg/l. The experiment was arranged incompletely randomized design with 10 replications. Parameters observedwere the numbers of shoots, leaves and roots. Results showed that withoutchemical component, by addition of coconut water on variousconcentrations on based media of MS, produced shoots, leaves and roots.The highest shoot number obtained on combination of media and additionof coconut water 15% as many as 3.4 shoots, with the number of leaves2.2 leaves at the age of 2 weeks and the highest roots formed on 15 %coconut water as many as 13.2 roots. Whereas on combination of mediawith millipore, the highest shoots were only 2.6 shoots, however it was notsignificantly different from treatment of control MS + BA 1.5 mg/l, itproduced 2.6 shoots,3.6 leaves and 15.4 roots.

Key words : Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., in vitro, coconut water,growth regulator, multiplication in vitro


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v16n4.2010.135-140

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