PENGARUH PUPUK UREA, SP36, DAN KCl TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb)

MONO RAHARDJO, EKWASITA RINI PRIBADI

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Sukamulya sejakSeptember 2006 sampai Desember 2007. Tujuan penelitian adalah untukmengetahui pengaruh pemberian pupuk urea, SP36, dan KCl terhadappertumbuhan, produksi, dan mutu rimpang temulawak. Perlakuan disusundalam faktorial 3 x 3 yang dilaksanakan dalam rancangan acak kelompokdan diulang 3 kali. Ketiga faktor yang dicoba terdiri atas 3 jenis pupukurea, SP36, dan KCl dengan takaran masing-masing 100, 200, dan 300kg/ha. Jarak tanam yang digunakan adalah 75 cm x 50 cm, denganpopulasi 40 tanaman/plot. Peubah yang diamati adalah, komponenpertumbuhan meliputi akumulasi biomas, produksi rimpang, mutusimplisia (minyak atsiri, bahan aktif kurkuminoid dan xanthorhizol), dankadar hara N, P dan K. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemupukanurea sebanyak 300 kg/ha pada tanah dengan status hara N rendahberpengaruh nyata terhadap peningkatan komponen pertumbuhan tanamantemulawak, biomas, hasil rimpang segar, dan simplisia kering pertanaman.Namun perlakuan interaksi dari tiga faktor pupuk urea, SP36, dan KCldengan masing-masing dosis 100, 200, dan 300 kg/ha tidak berpengaruhnyata terhadap produksi rimpang segar. Mutu simplisia yang dihasilkansudah memenuhi standar MMI  ( DEPKES, RI, 1995. Produksi rimpangsegar berkisar antara 20,23 - 25,46 t/ha. Produksi rimpang segar 20,23 t/hadicapai perlakuan pemupukan urea, SP36, dan KCl masing-masing 100kg/ha, yang menyerap 37,41 kg/ha hara N, 15,30 kg/ha hara P, dan146,11 kg/ha hara K. Produksi rimpang segar 25,46 t/ha dicapai perlakuan300 kg/ha urea, 200 kg/ha SP36 dan 200 kg/ha KCl, yang menyerap193,44 kg/ha hara N, 21,05 kg/ha hara P, dan 221,34 kg/ha hara K.

Kata kunci : Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb, produksi, mutu, dan serapanhara

ABSTRACT

Effect of urea, SP36, and KCl fertilizers on plant growthand production of java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhizaRoxb)

The experiment was conducted in Sukamulya Experimental Stationfrom September 2006 until December 2007. The objective of the researchwas nitrogen, phosphate, potassium uptake to increase plant growth,production and to find out quality of java turmeric. The experiment wasarranged in factorial randomized block design with three replicates, andurea, SP36, and KCl fertilizer dosages were 100, 200, 300 kg/ha. The plantspacing was 75 cm x 50 cm, population was 40 plant/plot, and plot sizewas 3.75 m x 4 m. The first research was done in 2006 to obtain plantgrowth data and the second one was conducted in 2007 aiming to obtaindata on productivity and quality of rhizomes. Parameters observed wereaccumulation of biomass, rhizomes productivity and quality, absorption ofplant nutrition (N, P and K), active compounds (curcuminoid andxanthorhizol). The result showed that fertilizer application of 300 kg/haurea on the soil low in N content was able to increase growth componentof java turmeric, fresh rhizomes, and dry matter of rhizomes per/plant.Combination of the three application factors of urea, SP36, and KCl withdosages of 100, 200, and 300 kg/ha, respectively, did not affect onrhizomes productivity. The quality of rhizomes have fulfilled MMIstandard. The productivity of rhizome varied from 20.23 – 25.46 t/ha.Application of urea, SP36, and KCl with each dosage of 100 kg/haproduced 20.23 t/ha rhizome, which absorbed as much as 137.41 kg N,15.30 kg P, and 146.11 kg K per ha. Application of urea, SP36, and KCl of300, 200, and 200 kg/ha, respectively, produced 25.46 t/ha rhizome, whichabsorbed as much as 193.44 kg/ha N, 21.05 kg/ha P, and 221.34 kg/ha K.

Key words : Curcuma xanthorrrhiza Roxb, productivity, quality andnutrien uptake


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v16n3.2010.98-105

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