PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI NILAM MENGGUNAKAN Bacillus spp. DAN Pseudomonad fluoresen

CHRISNAWATI CHRISNAWATI, NASRUN NASRUN, TRIWIDODO ARWIYANTO

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Penelitian pengendalian penyakit layu bakteri nilam (Ralstoniasolanacearum) menggunakan Bacillus spp. dan Pseudomonad fluoresen dikebun petani nilam di Nagari Kajai, Pasaman Barat, Sumatera Barat telahdilakukan pada bulan Mei sampai November 2006. Penelitian ini bertujuanuntuk mendapatkan Bacillus spp. dan Pseudomonad fluoresen yangberpotensi untuk mengendalikan penyakit layu bakteri, dan meningkatkanpertumbuhan dan produksi nilam. Isolat Bacillus spp. Bc 26; Bc 80 dan Bc81 dan Pseudomonad fluoresen Pf 101; Pf146 dan Pf 170 dalam bentukkombinasi sebagai perlakuan yang diisolasi dari rizosfer nilam sehat, dandiseleksi berdasarkan kemampuan antagonistik terhadap R. solanacearumsecara in vitro di laboratorium dan in planta di rumah kaca KP BalittroLaing Solok. Isolat Bacillus spp. dan Pseudomonad fluoresen tersebutdiintroduksikan ke nilam dan dibiarkan selama 1 minggu sebelum ditanam.Tanaman yang telah diperlakukan dengan isolat Bacillus spp. danPseudomonad fluoresen ditanam pada kebun nilam yang telah terinfeksioleh bakteri patogen pada bulan Mei 2006. Perlakuan yang diuji disusundalam rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) dengan 3 ulangan. Parameterpengamatan adalah perkembangan penyakit layu bakteri meliputi masainkubasi dan intensitas penyakit, pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi isolat Bacillus spp. Bc26dan Pseudomonad fluoresen Pf101 dapat mengendalikan penyakit layubakteri nilam lebih baik dibandingkan dengan isolat Bacillus spp. Bc 26dan Pseudomonad fluoresen Pf 101 secara terpisah dan isolat Bacillus spp.dan Pseudomonad fluoresen lainnya secara kombinasi dan terpisah.Kombinasi isolat Bacillus spp. Bc 26 dan Pseudomonad fluoresen Pf 101dapat menunda masa inkubasi gejala penyakit layu bakteri dari 21 harisetelah tanam (HST) menjadi 63 HST dan menekan intensitas penyakitlayu bakteri dari 63,90% menjadi 14,67%. Di samping itu kombinasikedua isolat tersebut dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman sepertitinggi tanaman dari 35,53 cm menjadi 52,77 cm, jumlah daun total dari32,00 daun/tanaman menjadi 104,67 daun/tanaman, jumlah tunas dari10,33 tunas/tanaman menjadi 25,33 tunas/tanaman, berat basah daun dari16,20 g/petak menjadi 81,73 g/petak dan berat kering daun dari 5,44 g/petak menjadi 27,15 g/petak. Hasil percobaan ini menunjukkan bahwakombinasi isolat Bacillus spp. Bc 26 dan Pseudomonad fluoresen Pf 101mempunyai kemampuan tertinggi dalam mengendalikan penyakit layubakteri dan meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman nilam di lapang.

Kata kunci: Pogostemon  cablin  Benth,  penyakit  layu  bakteri,pengendalian, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonad fluorescent

ABSTRACT

Use of Bacillus sp. and Fluorecent Pseudomonad to Control Bacterial Wilt Disease on Patchouli Plant

The study of controlling bacterial wilt disease on patchouli plant(Ralstonia solacearum) with Bacillus spp. and Fluorescent pseudomonadwas carried out in farmer field in Kajai Village, West Pasaman, WestSumatra from May to November 2006. The aims of the study were to findout the effectiveness of Bacillus spp. and Fluorescent pseudomonad forcontrolling bacterial wilt disease, and increasing plant growth andproduction. Isolates of Bacillus spp. Bc 26, Bc 80, and Bc 81, andFluorescent pseudomonad Pf 101, Pf 146 and Pf 170 in combination orseperation as treatments were isolated from the rhizosphere of healthypatchouli plant, and selected based on antagonistic activity on R.solanacearum in vitro at the laboratory and in planta at green house of KP.Balittro Laing Solok. Isolates were inoculated on patchouli plant andremained for one week before planting. The plants, treated with Bacillusspp. and Fluorescent pseudomonad isolates, were planted in the fieldinfected with pathogen bacterial in May 2006. The treatment was arrangedin a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. Theassessment parameters were incubation period, disease intensity, plantgrowth and production of patchouli plants. The results showed thatcombination of Bacillus spp. and Fluorescent pseudomonad could controlthe bacterial wilt disease better than Bacillus spp. Bc 26 and Fluorescentpseudomonad seperately, and the other Bacillus spp. and Fluorescentpseudomonad either in combination or separation. Combination ofBacillus spp. Bc26 and Fluorescent pseudomonad Pf 101 delayed theincubation period from 21 to 63 days and decreased the disease intensity ofbacterial wilt from 63.90 to 14.67%. In addition combination of bothisolates could affect the increase of plant growth, i.e plant height from35.53 to 52.77 cm, total numbers of leaves from 32.00 to 104 leaves/plant,budding numbers from 10.33 to 25.33 budding/plant, wet weight of leavesfrom 16.20 to 81.73 g/plot, and dry weight of leaves from 5.44 to 27.15g/plot. The results of the experiment showed that Bacillus spp. Bc 26 andFluorescent pseudomonad Pf 101 isolates have the highest activity oncontrolling the bacterial wilt disease and increase the growth of patchouliplant in the field.

Key words: Patchouli, Pogostemon cablin Benth, bacterial wilt disease,biological control, Bacillus spp., Fluorescent pseudomonad


Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v15n3.2009.116-123

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c)


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.




P-ISSN: 0853-8212
E-ISSN: 2528-6870

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

(Indonesian Center for Estate Crops Research and Development)

Jln. Tentara Pelajar No 1, Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu

Bogor 16111 Indonesia

Phone: +62251-8313083

Fax: +62251-8336194

Email: littri_puslitbangbun@yahoo.co.id



View My Stats