RESPONSE OF LEMONGRASS CLONES TO ORGANIC FERTILIZER / RESPON KLON SERAI DAPUR TERHADAP PUPUK ORGANIK

Octivia Trisilawati, Cheppy Syukur, Ekwasita Rini Pribadi, Ireng Darwati, Sintha Suhirman

Abstract


Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) is a potential plant producing lemongrass oil and citral, widely used for food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical industries, and traditional medicinal ingredients. Organic cultivation is expected to provide healthy food and medicinal ingredients. The study aimed to determine the production and quality of several lemongrass clones applied with an organic fertilizer at the Sukamulya research garden, ISMECRI, in Sukabumi, West Java, from November 2019 to June 2020. A Randomized Block design consisting of two factors and two replications was applied. The first factor was clones consisting of three lemongrass (C. citratus), i.e., a) Sukamulya, b) Cimande, c) Banten, and d) one clone of C. flexuosus. The second factor was organic fertilizer (1 kg/plant), namely: a) control, b) cow manure, c) goat manure, and d) chicken manure. The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer derived from cow and goat manure could increase the leaf length of several lemongrass clones. Plant growth, including the number of tillers, plant height, leaf length, pseudo-stem length, canopy, oil content, and oil yield of five-months-old citronella plants, were influenced by clones. C. flexuosus had lower plant height, pseudo-stem length, and mass weight than the three C. citratus clones but had higher oil content and yield. Lemongrass oil content in each clone was 0.82% (C. flexuosus), 0.30% (Sukamulya clone), 0.18% (Cimande clone), and 0.21% (Banten clone). The highest oil and citral yield was produced from C. flexuosus (72.08 and 51.06 kg/ha) and Sukamulya clone (69.91 and 54.27 kg/ha).

Kata kunci : clone, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf., growth, organic fertilizer, yield

 

Abstrak

Serai dapur (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) merupakan tanaman potensial penghasil minyak atsiri (lemongrass oil) dan sitral, yang banyak dimanfaatkan untuk bumbu dapur, industri farmasi, kosmetik, dan obat tradisional. Budidaya organik diharapkan dapat menjadi sarana penyediaan bahan obat dan industri yang lebih sehat dan aman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui produksi dan mutu beberapa klon serai dapur yang menggunakan pupuk organik. Penelitian dilakukan di KP. Sukamulya, Balittro, Sukabumi, Jawa Barat sejak November 2019 sampai Juni 2020. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dua faktor dengan dua ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah klon yang terdiri dari tiga klon serai dapur (C. citratus), yaitu: a) Sukamulya, b) Cimande, c) Banten, dan d) satu klon Cymbopogon flexuosus. Faktor kedua adalah jenis pupuk organik (1 kg/tanaman), yaitu: a) kontrol,  b) kotoran sapi, c) kotoran kambing, dan d) kotoran ayam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan aplikasi pupuk organik yang berasal dari kotoran sapi dan kambing dapat meningkatkan panjang daun beberapa klon serai dapur. Pertumbuhan tanaman meliputi jumlah anakan, tinggi tanaman, panjang daun, panjang batang semu, kanopi serta kandungan dan produksi minyak tanaman serai dapur berumur lima bulan yang dipengaruhi klon. C. flexuosus memiliki tinggi tanaman, panjang batang semu dan bobot massa yang lebih rendah dari ketiga klon C. citratus, tetapi memiliki kandungan dan produksi minyak yang lebih tinggi.   Kandungan minyak serai dapur pada masing-masing klon adalah 0,82% (C. flexuosus), 0,30% (klon Sukamulya),  0,18% (klon Cimande), dan 0,21% (klon Banten).  Produksi minyak dan sitral tertinggi dihasilkan dari C. flexuosus (72,08 dan 51,06 kg/ha) dan klon Sukamulya (69,91 dan 54,27 kg/ha). 

Keywords: klon, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf, pertumbuhan, pupuk organik, produksi


Keywords


clone, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf., growth, organic fertilizer, yield

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ajayi, E.O., Sadimenko, A.P. & Afolayan, A.J. (2016) Data Showing Chemical Compositions of the Essential Oils of the Leaves of Cymbopogon citratus Obtained by Varying pH of the Extraction Medium. Data in Brief. 8, 599–604. doi:10.1016/j.dib.2016.06.019.

Avoseh, O., Oyedeji, O., Rungqu, P., Nkeh-Chungag, B. & Oyedeji, A. (2015) Cymbopogon Species; Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and The Pharmacological Importance. Molecules. 20 (5), 7438–7453. doi:10.3390/molecules20057438.

Balittro (2006) Metode Pengujian dan Penelitian Analisis Minyak Atsiri Tanaman Rempah dan Obat. Bogor.

Bukhsh, M.A.A.H.A., Ahmad, R., Malik, A.U., Hussain, S. & Ishaque, M. (2011) Profitability of Three Maize Hybrids as Influenced by Varying Plant Density and Potassium Application. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 21 (1), 42–47.

Chat, O.A., Bhat, P.A., Nazir, N., Dar, A.A. (2019) Self-Assembled Systems Based on Surfactants and Polymers as Stabilizers for Citral in Beverages.In: Value-Added Ingredients and Enrichments of Beverages. Cambridge: Academic Press, pp.487–521.

D’avila, J.V., Martinazzo, A.P., Dos Santos, F.S., Teodoro, C.E. de S. & Portz, A. (2016) Essential Oil Production of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Under Organic Compost Containing Sewage Sludge. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental. 20 (9), 811–819. doi:10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v20n9p811-816.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Pretoria. (2012) Lemongrass Production: In Essential Oil Crops, Production Guideslenes for Lemongrass; A Publication of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries; Directorate Communication Services. Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Pretoria: Pretoria, South Africa. doi:10.31883/pjfns/113152.

El-Sayed, A.A., A., El-Leithy, A.S., Swaefy, H.M. & Senossi, Z.F.M. (2018a) Effect of Bio and Organic Fertilizers on Oil Production and Chemical Composition of Lemongrass Plant. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 25 (6). 1–15. doi:10.9734/ARRB/2018/40919.

El-Sayed, A.A., El-Leithy, A.S., Swaefy, H.M. & Senossi, Z.F.M. (2018b) Effect of NPK, Bio and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Herb Yield, Oil Production and Anatomical Structure of (Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf) Plant. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 26 (2). 1–15. doi:10.9734/ARRB/2018/41038.

Farkhanda, M., Narjis, N., Malik, S.A., Samra, A. & Bina, S. (2013) Chemical Composition of Essential Oils Derived from Eucalyptus and Lemongrass and Their Antitermitic Activities Angainst Microtermes mycophagus (Desneux). Asian Journal of Chemistry. 25 (5), 2405–2408.

Feryanto. (2006) Minyak Serai Dapur/ Lemongrass Oil. http://ferry-atsiri.blogspot.com/ 2006/ 10/ minyak-serai-dapur-lemongrass oil. html [Accessed: 4 July 2022].

Figueiredo, R. Ming, L., Machado, S. & Andrare, R. (1996) Yield of Essential Oil and Citral Content in Different Parts of Lemongrass Leaves (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf.) Poaceae. Acta Hortic. 426, 555–559. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.1996.426.60.

Formacek, V. & Kubeczka, K. (1982) Essential Oil Analysis by Capillary Chromatography and Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy. New York: J. Wiley, 155-160.

Guenther, E. (1961) The Essential Oils. Vol (1): D.Van Nostrand Co. New York. : 236.

Han, S.H., An, J.Y., Hwang, J., Kim, S. Bin & Park, B.B. (2016) The Effects of Organic Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on The Growth and Nutrient Concentrations of Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera, Lin.) in a Nursery System. Forest Science and Technology. 12 (3), 137–143. doi:10.1080/21580103.2015.1135827.

Ho, L. & Baker, D. (1982) Regulation of Loading and Unloading: Pathway and Mechanisms. Plant Physiol. 56, 225–230.

Hobir & Nuryani, Y. (2004) Plasma Nutfah Tanaman Atsiri. Perkembangan Teknologi TRO. 16 (1), 17–27.

Horta, C., Roboredo, M., Carneiro, J.P., Duarte, A.C., Torrent, J. & Sharpley, A. (2018) Organic Amendments as a source of Phosphorus: Agronomic and Environmental Impact of Different Animal Manures Applied to an acid Soil. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 64 (2), 257–271.

doi:10.1080/03650340.2017.1346372.

Leiwakabessy, F.M. & Sutandi, A. (2004) Pupuk dan Pemupukan. Fakultas Pertanian. IPB Bogor.

Lewinsohn, E., Dudai, N., Tadmor, Y., Katzir, I., Ravid, U.Z.I., Putievsky, E.L.I. & Joel, D.M. (1998) Histochemical Localization of Citral Accumulation in Lemongrass Leaves (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Poaceae). Annals of Botany. 81 (1), 35–39. doi:10.1006/anbo.1997.0525.

Loomis, W.D. & Croteau, R. (1980) Biochemistry of Terpenoids. In Stumpf PK (Ed) The Biochemistry of Plants.In: Academic Press, New York. pp.4:363-481.

Majewska, E., Kozlowska, M., Gruszczynska-Sekowska, E., Kowalska, D. & Tarnowska, K. (2019) Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Essential Oil: Extraction, Composition, Bioactivity and Uses for Food Preservation-a Review. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 69 (4), 327–341. doi:10.31883/pjfns/113152.

Muchtar, J. (2020) Variasi Pemberian Pupuk Organik Kotoran Sapi dan Ayam terhadap Tanaman Buncis sebagai Upaya Meningkatkan Produktivitas Usahatani Buncis. Agritekh. 1 (01), 72–95. doi:10.32627/agritekh.v1i01.3.

Naik, M.I., Fomda, B.A., Jaykumar, E. & Bhat, J.A. (2010) Antibacterial Activity of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Oil Against Some Selected Pathogenic Bacterias. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 3 (7), 535–538. doi:10.1016/S1995-7645(10)60129-0.

Novitasari, D. & Caroline, J. (2021) Kajian Efektivitas Pupuk dari Berbagai Kotoran Sapi, Kambing dan Ayam. Jurusan Teknik Lingkungan, Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan, ITATS. In: Prosiding Seminar Teknologi Perencanaan, Perancangan, Lingkungan, dan Infrastruktur II FTSP ITATS. Surabaya, 20 Februari 2021, pp.442–437.

Oyen, L.P. & Dung, N.X. (1999) Plant Resource of South-East Asia No. 19. Essential-Oil Plant.In: Prosea Bogor. Indonesia. p.p.279.

Pilbeam, D.J. (2015) Nitrogen. In: Handbook of Plant Nutrition. Second edition. 2nd edition. pp.17-64 p.

Pitaloka, N.D. (2004) Uji Efektivitas Ketersediaan Unsur Fosfat pada Tanah Typic Tropoquent Dataran Aluvial Berdasarkan Dosis dan Waktu Inkubasi. Jurnal Agrifar. 2 (3).

Plata-Rueda, A., Martinez, L.C., da Silva Rolim, G., Coelho, R.P., Santos, M.H., de Souza Tavares, W., Zanuncio, J.C., Serrao, J.E. (2020) Insecticidal and Repellent Activities of Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) Essential Oil and its Terpenoids (Citral and Geranyl Acetate) Against Ulomoidesdermestoides. Crop Protection. 137:105299. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2020.105299.

Punam, P., Kumar, R., Sharma, S. & Atul, D. (2012) The Effect of Organic Management Treatments on The Productivity and Quality of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus). Journal of Organic Systems. 7, 36–48.

Ritonga, A.A., Efendi, E. & Safruddin. (2020) Respon Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Sereh (Cymbopogon citratus) terhadap Aplikasi NPK Mutiara dan POC Top G2. BERNAS Agricultural Research Journal. 16 (1), 125–136.

Setyorini, D., Saraswati, R. & Anwar, E.K. (2006) Kompos. Dalam Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati. Balai Besar Litbang Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian, Badan Litbang.

Shahi, V.B. & Singh, P.N. (2013) Effect of Inorganic and Organic Sources of Nutrients on Yield and Yield Attributes of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). Annals of Horticulture. 6 (1), 49–55.

Shamsheer, B., Riaz, N., Yousaf, Z., Hyder, S., Aftab, A., Iqbal, R., Rahman, M.H., Al-Askhar, I., Almutairi, K. F & El Sabagh, A. (2022) Genetic Diversity Analysis for Wild and Cultivated Accessions of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf using Phytochemical and Molecular Markers. PeerJ. 10, e13505.

Shi, C., Sun, Y., Liu, Z., Guo, D., Sun, H., Sun, Z., Chen, S., Zhang, W., Wen, O., Peng, X. & Xia, X. (2017) Inhibition of Cronobacter Sakazakii Virulence Factors by Citral. Scientific Reports. 7 (1), 1–11. doi:10.1038/srep43243.

Sofiah, S., Raya, U.B.K.T.K., Purwodadi, J., Km, R.S.M. & Timur, P.J. (2010) Cymbopogon citratus sebagai Salah Satu Tanaman Penghasil Minyak Atsiri. UPT Balai Konservasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya, Indonesia.

Stevenson, F.J. (1994) Humus Chemistry Genesis, Composition, Reactien. John Willey and Sons. New York.

Tajidin, N.E., Ahmad, S.H., Rosenani, A.B., Azimah, H. & Munirah, M. (2012) Chemical Composition and Citral Content in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Essential Oil at Three Maturity Stages. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11 (11), 2685–2693.

Tanah, B.P. (2012) Analisis Kimia Tanah, Tanaman, Air dan Pupuk.In: Petunjuk Teknis Edisi 2. Balai Besar Sumber Daya Lahan Pertanian, Badan Litbang Pert. Deptan, p.234 hlm.

Tisdale, L.S., Nelson, L.N., Beaton, D.J. & Havlin, L.H. (1993) Soil Fertility and Fertilizer 5th ed.

Trisilawati, O., Seswita, D. & Syakir, M. (2017) The Nutrient Uptake of N, P, and K of Seven Promising Numbers of Lemongrass in Latosol Soil. Jurnal Littri. 23 (2), 105–111.

Weiss, E.A. (1997) Essential Oil Crops: Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 59±137.

Yang, X.E., Wang, G.W.M. & He, Z.L. (2004) Physiological and Genetic Characteristics of Nutrient Efficiency of Plants in Acid Soils. Kluwer Academic Publishers.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v28n1.2022.45-55

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Penelitian Tanaman Industri

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.




P-ISSN: 0853-8212
E-ISSN: 2528-6870

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

(Indonesian Center for Estate Crops Research and Development)

Jln. Tentara Pelajar No 1, Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu

Bogor 16111 Indonesia

Phone: +62251-8313083

Fax: +62251-8336194

Email: littri_puslitbangbun@yahoo.co.id



View My Stats